The owner of the housing when choosing heaters to supply the house with hot water and heating is guided, first of all, by considerations of the expediency of the device in a particular case. It is necessary to calculate the economic question - how much will the equipment cost, its installation, maintenance. It is important and technically justified to choose a boiler so that its performance is enough to solve the main task, and at the same time it does not have to overpay for unnecessary options and excess capacity. In some cases, it is convenient to use a system where the energy carrier is natural wood. Especially in those areas where the gas supply is not connected or there are interruptions in the supply of electricity.
Do not confuse the device with a stove: it has a different principle of operation. If the furnace heats the air, the wood-burning boilers for the house are designed for the operation of a water heating system. Hence, another approach to the design of equipment. The heat exchanger is located in the air overheating zone. The natural or forced movement of water in the system carries it through pipes to the heating devices in the dwelling. After giving away some of the energy, the cooled water returns to the boiler, where it is brought to the desired temperature. The scheme of fluid circulation is projected based on the design of the heating device. For this reason, it is recommended to purchase a wood-burning boiler for heating a private house with batteries before installing the heating wiring.
The most important indicator of boiler operation is its efficiency, which largely depends on the design of the combustion chamber and the heat exchanger. It is accepted to divide the equipment intended for firewood into the following types:
In addition to differences in the design, due to the principle of operation, devices can be equipped with additional details. For example, pellet boilers are often supplied with automatic fuel supply. Some models have sensors that inform about current processes and help to mount a remote control system. Today, wood-fired boilers for home heating are efficient, modern devices that successfully compete in performance with the best examples of gas and electrical equipment.
Traditional design, resembling a stove. As the heat exchanger, the main metal tank or a separate device connected to a separate storage tank is used. Efficiency depends on the correct location of the structural elements, their size, the system of regulation and control over the combustion process. The throttle valve is installed in a position where the exhaust air flow is sufficient to prevent the combustion products from entering the room. Excessive speed of movement of convection currents is undesirable, since thermal energy will not have time to give the heat exchanger the necessary amount of heat. Strong traction will blow hot air outside. The efficiency of the system is reduced, and fuel consumption increases significantly.
This design applies to long-burning devices. A characteristic feature of the top-ignition boiler is a fairly large amount of firewood laying and a controlled combustion process from top to bottom. The flame spreads more slowly. Dosed air supply does not allow the rapid spread of open fire, it is enough to maintain a certain level of combustion. As the upper layer is consumed, firewood begins to be included in the process. High-quality boiler upper burning can work on one tab for up to two days.
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Modern production system based on the principle of double combustion. When wood is burned, gas is produced, which is discharged into a chimney in a conventional firebox. At the same time, it has the ability, under certain conditions, also to give off energy during combustion. The design of the pyrolysis boiler consists of two sections. In the first wood burns, in the second it releases gas. This design is often called gas generator. More complete combustion is provided. The efficiency of the device is higher than that of a traditional boiler. A more complex design will cost a little more, but it will quickly pay off with less fuel consumption.Such a boiler for heating a private house on the wood is considered the most productive and economical.
The principle of operation is similar to the device with the top ignition. The special design of the firebox allows you to place firewood in such a way that the spread of an open flame horizontally is difficult. This contributes to the minimum air supply. The fire gradually moves from one edge of the firebox to the other. In contrast to the traditional design, the recoil time of the potential energy of one tab is much longer. The simplicity of the boiler and high efficiency make it attractive for those who do not want or do not have the ability to constantly monitor the combustion process. Manufacturers are trying to offer models with a single daily load, which is very convenient for both the suburban lady of permanent residence, and for temporary housing visits, for example, cottages.
You should be guided by all the information about the features of models that will matter when operating. From the ability to install in a prepared room to the quality of wood burned. The choice of a particular model is determined by the following economic and technical characteristics:
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Universal models are widely represented on the market that can work on both conventional wood and pellets. Pressed granules are energy-intensive and take up less space during storage. At cost, with the same amount of energy produced, costs are comparable if firewood is purchased at market prices. The range of products offered is extremely wide. Wood-fired boilers are also produced by domestic manufacturers, in particular, one of the oldest enterprises in Russia, OAO Kirovsky Zavod, and leading foreign companies.
Additional information about choosing a wood boiler is in this video:
Fundamentally, the installation of the device does not differ from similar operation with gas equipment. However, you should consider some of the nuances. The energy carrier for the gas boiler enters the pipe from the main highway and does not require any effort from the user. Combustion products are not collected during combustion. Firewood also requires a separate storage area with recommended conditions. It is desirable that they were in a dry place. Increased humidity reduces work efficiency, since some of the energy goes to dry wood. The laying of the fuel into the boiler, the removal of ash is done strictly following the fire safety technique.
Special attention is paid to the ventilation system and chimney design. When burning, a large amount of harmful substances is released. Their penetration into residential premises is unacceptable. Modern boilers from leading manufacturers are equipped with reliable protection systems, sensors. However, wood-burning devices are not recommended to be installed in rooms combined with living space. A steel sheet is laid out under the boiler within a radius of at least 1 meter. When communicating with a standard heating system, conflicts do not arise.
Main problem during operation equipment becomes timely removal of combustion products. Ash is cleaned regularly. High organic content in natural wood leads to rapid contamination of pipelines. The chimney clogs several times faster than when using a gas boiler.With certain skills and the available tool this operation can be carried out independently. If this is not possible, then experts are called. If the chimney is operated while the gas boiler is running, then the successful configuration of the pipeline allows the operation to be carried out every few years. Wood burning devices require more frequent intervention. Depending on the design, the chimney is cleaned 1-2 times a year. If this schedule shows a significant decrease in the efficiency of the system, you should contact the professionals in order to modify the route, improve the performance characteristics of the combustion products.
For a year, it takes 10-15 m 3 wood to heat the house. Harvest it in advance. Care should be taken to keep fuel in a place protected from precipitation. A canopy will be enough. Good ventilation during installation also contributes to effective drying. Of great importance is the wood species. Conifers such as pine, spruce, cedar are not among the best fuels, but they are inexpensive. Deciduous species, such as birch, beech, oak, and ash, give much heat. These rocks are considered valuable, and only waste and non-business materials are used as fuel.
It is not by chance that many reputable manufacturers have established release of equipment of this category. The demand for it is high not only in Russia and the CIS countries. Today, wood-fired boilers for a house with water heating are successfully used in many regions of Europe, America and Asia. The secret is simple - high prices for gas and electricity have led to the fact that the maintenance of the corresponding equipment is expensive. In many countries, the production of pellets from waste woodworking and furniture industry. Granules take up little space and have high energy efficiency. Reasonable prices make their use extremely attractive. The cost of heating a house is 100-150 m 2 with wood at an average market price of 10,000 -15,000 rubles. It is even lower than when using gas, although it is he who is considered the most cost-effective energy carrier. In practice, it turns out that the use of a wood boiler of the latest generation of high performance is more profitable than the connection of gas equipment. Electricity will cost even more.
In the regions where cheap wood is available, these figures are even more impressive. In some areas there is a quota for self-procurement of fuel. There are many woodworking enterprises in the country, for which the constant problem is the large amount of waste. Not all enterprises of the industry have developed complete processing lines. If in the neighborhood there is such a production, then installing a wood boiler will significantly save the family budget.
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Some inconvenience It is considered to be necessary to regularly engage in the procurement of fuel for the first time, the laying of wood into the boiler. However, in reality this is not a big problem. Doing housekeeping in a private house at the cottage implies a permanent job, unlike living in a city apartment. It is easy to allocate a few minutes to maintain heat, especially if it turns out to be economically beneficial.