A simple way to increase the living space of a small country house is to organize an attic in the attic. In order to bring living conditions in the attic to normal, a number of construction operations must be carried out, where the organization of safe movement from the first floor of the house to the attic is important. In this article we will talk about the stairs to the attic: what types are used, what materials they construct, what requirements for ladder structures are presented by SNiPs, as well as several technologies for their construction. The information will be useful to all those who thought about the construction of the attic in a private house.
To begin with, that the stairs themselves to the attic can be installed both inside the house and outside. The second option is rarely used, only if the area of the ground floor rooms does not allow the installation of a staircase. It is dangerous to operate such ladders in the winter or in the rain, so they are covered with canopies or canopies of various shapes and sizes. Although not always. The photo below shows an example of such a structure made of wood.
Basically, the stair structures to the attic are installed inside the house. Purely constructively choose their three varieties: marching, screw or folding. About each of them and will tell.
This is the simplest design option. Such ladders are very convenient in terms of moving along them. But one very important requirement is presented to them - the angle of inclination should not exceed 45 °, but, as experts say, it is better not more than 40 °. Therefore, this type is not always possible, especially in small rooms. Because marching ladders have a large projection on the plane of the floor base. In fact, they take up a lot of space.
Distinguish marching constructions by the number of marches: with one, with two with a turn of 90 °, with two with a turn of 180 ° and an intermediate platform. In the latter case, the site can be replaced by zabezhny steps. So that you understand what it is about, this construction is shown in the photo below.
Consider each version of the marching models separately.
This is the simplest construction, straightforward, without turns and turns. It is impossible to call it a compact staircase to the attic, it takes up too much space, taking into account the inclination, no more than 40 °. If the room through which the transition to the attic is organized has decent dimensions, then this variety can be installed. It is not installed in small private houses.
The advantages of the single-marketed construction are many:
the minimum materials of which it is made;
respectively and low price products;
simplicity installation and assembly;
if competently set near the wall, then places it will occupy a little ;
you can arrange under the staircase storage space for the brownie utensils or recreation area, as shown in the photo below.
Installation of a one-way staircase is a simple process. If it is small in size, then it is delivered to the house in finished form. Such designs are made to order, the main thing is to accurately measure the dimensions of the zone where the ladder will be installed. And this is the height of the ceiling in the house, the angle of the structure, its width and the height of the railing.
Often, craftsmen with them bring only lumber, and are engaged in manufacturing locally. In this case, all dimensional parameters are measured out in the house and immediately transferred to boards and beams. We must pay tribute to the fact that the first option is simpler. The finished product must simply be installed in the ceiling opening and fastened to the floor of the first and attic floor. If the ladder is located near the wall, then to this plane too.
Pay attention to the photo below, where it is shown how simple a one-sided ladder is easily assembled.
Install two bars connecting the floors of the attic and the lower floor of the house.
The bars with a cross section of 50x50 mm are installed and fastened on their inner planes with screws .
On bars, boards are installed that perform the functions of steps.
Then installation of the handrail of the fence is made.
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When the task is to make the stairs to the attic in a small house, you often choose a dvuhmarshevuyu design or spiral. In this section, we consider the first model. They can be two versions: with a turn of 90 and 180 °. It cannot be said that any of the two options is preferable. It all depends on what height the ceiling in the house, and how much space in the room for the construction of the stairs stands out. The second option takes up less space.
Let's look at how a master is assembled with a turn of 90 °.
First, the marking of the intermediate platform is applied to the walls. That is, its height, width and length. The last two parameters may be the same.
On the marked marks a platform is being constructed, under which four pillars of a support from a bar with a minimum cross-section of 100x100 mm must be installed. Racks are attached to the floor, and which stand against the wall in addition to its plane.
Supports are tied with 50 mm thick boards or 100x100 mm beams.
The resulting structure over the is covered with boards 30-40 mm thick, you can use plywood, OSB or chipboard.
The platform is ready, now for it from the floor of the lower floor there is a one-marsh ladder, which with its upper ends will rest against the prepared site. To her she will be attached. The technology of mounting a single-frame structure is described above.
Now, from the intermediate platform, in the direction of the entrance to the attic, there is another one-flight construction of stairs. It is only laid along the neighboring wall, and additionally attached to it.
The video shows how a dvuhmarchevaya ladder is going to the attic with a rotation of 90 °:
A two-construction with a rotation of 180 ° - more construction difficult, although it consists of two marches, like the previous version. Simply, they are stacked relative to each other in opposite directions. Often install such stairs in the attic in a small room that is not residential. For example, it can be a corridor, a veranda and so on.
The essence of the whole structure is that the intermediate platform is made wider so that two marches can fit on one side at once: the lower and the upper. And since the minimum width of the marching structure is 80 cm, respectively, the width of the platform should be no less than 160 cm. It is from this magnitude that one has to push off by constructing a ladder of this type.
As for the assembly process itself, it does not differ from the previous one. That is, an intermediate platform is first collected, then the lower march is installed on it from the lower floor of the house, followed by the upper one. Both parts of the stairs can be assembled in the workshop, and already ready to assemble, you can assemble them in place.
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It should be noted that today, more and more often, the stairs connecting the attic with the intermediate platform are being refused. Preference is given to models with zabezhnymi steps. They are easier to install and cheaper to use materials. We will not describe how such a structure is made. Watch the video, where all this is clearly visible.
The video shows how easy it is to assemble a ready-made double-march staircase with treads:
I would like to add that today so-called modular are very popular stairs. They are going to modules made from metal pipes. Parts of a design are selected by the sizes. They are easily connected to each other in a bell-shaped way and bolted, which already guarantees high reliability of fastening. But the steps are made of durable wood. It turns out a kind of symbiosis of metal and wood, which always looks presentable. Paint the metal more often in black, but here manufacturers offer different options.
These are the most original and unusual stairs, with which You can climb to the attic. Their main advantage is compactness. They are placed in almost any room.
Their constructive feature is a column stand, on which they are fastened along a spiral ascending line of a step. The shape of the latter may be different: from the classic rectangular to the original rounded.
Such a structure can be installed in the corner or against the wall of the room, and it will not interfere. At the same time, the space around the stairs can be beaten in different ways.
Today, manufacturers offer different options for assembling spiral staircases in the attic. But increasingly, consumers are choosing modular designs. They consist of pieces of pipe, which are welded to the supporting elements. The latter are already metal steps. They will subsequently be trimmed (covered) with steps made of wood. Between themselves, the modules are assembled in a socket-like manner with subsequent bolting.
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What can be said about folding stairs to the attic. In Russia, they have not taken root. Use them too, but not so often. Still, our compatriots are accustomed to the monumental construction. They do not accept the western approach to housing.
Purely constructively, these stairs consist of several parts, which are connected by hinges. Therefore, they are easily folded to the ceiling or, in general, are removed in the attic room. Such structures are called attic and they belong to the category of ladders. Today, manufacturers offer their huge range. They can be selected according to the length and number of sections, according to their design, and also according to the type of raw material: metal or wood.
Here are some advantages of stairs of this type:
Maximum compactness .
If necessary, you can remove (fold), and in the lower room they will not interfere.
Manufacturers do everything to ensure that transformer stairs have the maximum safety . After all, very often in the attic rooms organize children's rooms, which means that children will mostly move along the stairs.
To expand the device or fold it does not present much difficulty. Only several manipulations are required.
A small specific weight is also a big plus.
Reasonable price in comparison with other varieties.
We add that, in a design, folding ladders are divided into the following types:
folding harmonicas ;
folding is not the most popular type because it resembles one-way ladder with a large tilt angle.
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Regardless of where the stairs to the attic will be installed: from the veranda, corridor or living room, it is recommended to make it beautiful. Its appearance should fit into the interior design of the room. It should not stand out much, but it is necessary to emphasize the interior decoration. Therefore, choosing the option proposed in this article, we recommend to coordinate it with the designer, whom you entrusted to organize the interior of the house.