In this article you will learn about the stages of the construction of a pond at the site, what are the requirements for such water bodies, and what systems and devices are necessary for its normal functioning and cleaning. And also, if you decide to create this structure at your dacha, you will find information on the design of ponds useful. After reading the article, you will be able to order the construction of an artificial reservoir and all the necessary and installation of systems, understanding what is here and what.
For a start it is worth saying that digging up a pond at the site is a rather difficult engineering task, requiring the involvement of a lot of resources and significant cash costs. Many construction firms offer their customers this type of service. The building should be entrusted to specialists who have experience in their business and have already created similar structures. Managers will calculate for you the cost of work, based on measurements and projects of engineers. This reduces your participation in the construction to a minimum. But still it will be useful for you to know what is needed for the construction of a pond at the site:
A mandatory requirement is the availability of special earth-moving equipment to dig a pond at the site, as well as trucks for the removal of land from the construction site. The amount of transport is calculated based on the amount of work, but even in order to dig a small reservoir, you will have to get rid of a huge mass of soil. To roughly understand how many tons of land need to be removed, you can calculate the volume of the pond and multiply it by the density of the soil in your area.
excavators. devices that will allow to continuously supply clean water to the reservoir. These include filters, pipes, faucets, distribution units and other hydraulic construction devices. After all, if you do not change the water and do not clean it regularly, then the pond will lose its qualities, an unpleasant smell and shade will appear, and all the fish will die. After that, it will be extremely problematic to fall asleep or clean up such a "swamp".
to that it is worth considering, as for the construction and maintenance of the reservoir in the proper form, large financial investments will be required. In addition to wages and hiring equipment, as well as the purchase of all communications, you will need to constantly purchase chemicals for the pond, fish feed, if you plan to breed them, new filters and many more consumables.
If you are sure that If you can ensure that all items on this list are fulfilled, then you will definitely have to build a pond on your backyard. Next, we consider all the technology works on the construction, as well as you will learn about the requirements for artificial reservoirs.
The pond, which is planned to be used for fish farming and bathing, is a whole complex of components connected into one complex technical structure. Before you start its construction, you just need to solve a whole lot of issues related to its device.
First, be sure to choose the shape, area and location of the reservoir. In the design process, it is strongly recommended to consult with a specialist, if you do not trust him with all the work on calculation, reflection and optimization. In any case, it is always better to build ponds in places where groundwater is located close to the surface. In the presence of dry soil, the work is much more complicated and requires additional investments.
Secondly, it is imperative that even before construction begins, you need to think about how and where water will be supplied from. Here it is necessary to calculate the length of the pipe, the number of transitions and the required volume of pumping. In addition, you will need a pump or pump that will distill the liquid.
Thirdly, if you plan to breed fish in a pond, then you must take care of the wintering pit. Plus, the reservoir should have several zones that differ in depth: shallow water, for warming water, deep water for wintering, a zone of aquatic vegetation and a beach zone.
Often the construction of an artificial pond at a site also implies the presence of aquatic vegetation and various decorative elements. Their location, type and size also need to be considered at the stage of project activities.
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If you do not have experience in designing ponds, then you should contact an expert so that you do not have to correct a large number of mistakes made. Any company engaged in artificial ponds, will provide you with several options of sketches to choose from.
First, a pit is drawn in three projections. The top view has an indication of the depths and zones, but the main information that it contains is the shape of the reservoir. Two more projections show the width and length of the pond, as well as slopes and depth transitions.
When drawing a sketch, use the data to determine the size of the pit. about the properties of the soil in a certain area. For example, the sand cover does not allow for sharp, angular transitions, because they fall off very quickly. In this case, the depth changes smoothly, and the water mirror has a large area. In general, there are special lists in the public domain that specify the optimum bevel angles for different types of soil.
Next, a second sketch is drawn, showing the presence and location of all the decorative elements, trees and aquatic vegetation. There are no special requirements for it for accuracy and depth indication, because the task of such a plan is only to approximately set the appearance of the future reservoir.
Artificial pond construction includes the purchase and installation of a large number of devices, the task of which is to ensure the normal cleaning and replacement of water, its aeration and distillation.
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If the dacha is located in the area of light soils, the construction of an artificial pond at the site should include measures to prevent filtration. The complexity of this process most often lies in removing the melt water, because it falls into the pit, flowing over the sides or passing through the ground. Therefore, it is desirable to strengthen the entire inner surface and stop the contact of water with the soil. This can be done by covering the surface of the pit with clay screens or with a special mixture of concrete with special additives.
But other stores also sell other tools for building artificial reservoirs: Synthetic mats with dry clay between layers or rubber film also do an excellent job of protecting the pond from contamination.
is most commonly used for construction. In any case, your pond will need maintenance. Construction of a reservoir on the site using this technology will prevent it from clogging too fast. The main advantage of bottom coating is to minimize the ingress of active clay particles from underground sources into the water. For the complete cessation of such processes, the bottom is filled with gravel-sand mixture or synthetic filtration media.
If water is rarely exchanged or absent at all, then it is imperative to use pond aeration. This is the process of enriching water with oxygen using technical means. One of the options for such saturation is the use of a small fountain. But it should be noted that this method is quite expensive. Therefore, the most commonly used pumps for aeration.
You can familiarize yourself with the device and the peculiarities of using such means for enriching water with oxygen by watching this video:
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If the reservoir is located next to a river or stream, then there should be no problems with ensuring water supply. Natural sources can easily feed the pond at the dacha, without losing its water content. In this case, all that will be needed to organize the feeding is a small dam, which delays water flow and discharges excess. At the entrance to the pond, there should be grids and filters that will not allow water to be contaminated by impurities from the source.When breeding fish, similar devices are placed on the discharge system so that it does not go along with the stream.
In the case of a power pond located far from rivers or springs, to draw a long and extensive network of communications from the place of the fence to the artificial reservoir and in the opposite direction. Therefore, if you plan to create a pond where there are no natural water sources, it is better to reconsider your decision.
Great attention is always paid to the water discharge structures. They may consist of steel and concrete pipes, the diameter of which is selected taking into account the greatest flow rate of the water flow. Water should be discharged regularly, before cleaning the bottom, otherwise such works will cause a lot of difficulties, and without this it is simply impossible to achieve clean water in the pond. Drainage should be carefully considered to avoid flooding of buildings.
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Before digging a pond on the site, its water exchange rate should be calculated. This is a very important characteristic, depending on the hydrological features of the terrain. It shows the ratio of the volume of water coming from outside and leaving the pond. The larger the area, the less this indicator should be. To calculate it and select the appropriate parameters of the reservoir, you should contact the experts.
It is important to always maintain clean water. Then you can swim and successfully breed in it various breeds of fish. Pay attention to the cleaning process is needed at the design stage. It can be done in two ways: with a full discharge of water and without water exchange. In addition, pond care procedures include a large number of activities.
If you watch this video, you will get a lot of useful tips on cleaning and maintaining the pond in proper condition.
I would like to dwell on the purification of water in the pond without discharge. Provided that the artificial reservoir is quite large, the order in it can be ensured due to the timely distillation of water through special devices, which are called filters, and thanks to the beneficial influence of microorganisms. Filters are different:
Mechanical are most common because of the simplicity of the design and low cost Most of these devices clean water from various types of pollution. The principle of operation consists in the retention of excess impurities with rubble and various fractions of sand.
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Chemical filters are needed to absorb compounds harmful to the pond. Arrangement of a natural pond at the site necessarily requires the use of such devices, because there are always undesirable impurities in rivers and streams. The chemical filter can also be supplemented with special devices for aeration.
For the purpose of water purification, sterilization products are also used. Such aggregates irradiate water with ultraviolet radiation, deadly for any bacteria. But if there is fish in the pond, then such an apparatus can be used only when dangerous pathogens are detected.
There is also a microbiological method for cleaning ponds . It consists in the deliberate colonization of the reservoir with bacteria, accelerating the decomposition of organic compounds.
A video about a simple water filtration system in a pond
If you ignore the need for cleaning for a long time, the water can reach such a state in which it will be impossible to put it in order.
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It is very good to have a large and clean pond on your summer cottage. This addition will allow you to take refuge in the water from the heat on a summer day, and in the evening sit on the shore with a fishing rod and enjoy the silence. Plus lies in the fact that you will always have fresh fish on the table. In addition, an artificial reservoir is a luxurious decoration for any yard. These advantages more than compensate for all the difficulties associated with the creation of a pond at their summer cottage, which are described in this article.