Not all owners of suburban areas are lucky with relief. Perfectly flat areas are not as common today as you would like. The construction boom that has swept the country has baffled the power of many in the region. Therefore, the land for the construction of private houses outside the city began to be issued in problem areas: in lowlands, on slopes, marshy, littered. And this did not alienate the developers, because the problem can be solved by dumping the site. What it is, how it is conducted, what materials are used - all in this article.
First of all, you need to solve two questions:
By what principles it is determined that it is necessary to pour the land in any case.
When to make dumping.
The answer to the first question.
The highlighted area is in the lowland . In the rainy season and melting snow it melts all the time. High groundwater level.
On the territory there are not only depressions and lowlands, but also heights , which, in a compartment, make it difficult to carry out landscaping.
If part of the site is marshy and does not dry out even in the summer heat.
If the road through the village is higher than . The same goes for neighboring sites.
If the soil in the suburban area is littered : household waste, used building materials, extensive contaminants with fuels and lubricants, and so on.
A strong bias .
The answer to the second question is that dumping is best done before construction begins. Here, the time of year does not matter. Sometimes there are problem areas in which some buildings have already been erected. In this case, leveling processes are more difficult to carry out. But there is also a plus - from the construction remains the soil chosen for the foundation, which is used for dumping. That is, there is a certain amount of savings. But in this article we will talk about sites in which construction has not yet been conducted.
Before proceeding directly to the alignment of the territory , it is necessary to conduct a significant amount of preparatory work in stages. Here is a phased development plan:
if there are old buildings, they are demolished ;
are being cleared ;
spend planning ;
if there is a need - lay the drainage system ;
and dumping itself .
From the entire list presented, an important item is the layout. The first conduct surveying. That is, they call surveyors who drill a well and determine the level of groundwater and the composition of the soil. With GWG clear. If it is high, you will have to lay drainage. But what gives the composition of the soil.
First, it concerns the soil - the fertile layer. It is not recommended to fill it. Therefore, before the beginning of the leveling works it is removed. Therefore, it is very important to know the thickness of the soil layer.
Usually, the soil is removed and dumped outside the site. After dumping it again fall asleep in place. Even with a large amount of excavation work of this type, it is more profitable than to buy fertile land on the side and deliver it to your own plot. If the soil is unsuitable for further improvement, for example, as littered as possible, then there is no sense in touching it.
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Secondly, a lot will depend on what kind of soil is located under the fertile layer. If it is clay, then surely it was she who caused the swampiness. After all, it is known that clay practically does not let water through. In the survey of surveyors should pay attention to the thickness of the clay layer. If it is insignificant, then it is optimal to remove it and take it out. After that, to fill the site with sand or gravel-sand mixture. And on top of falling asleep soil. If the thickness of the clay layer is significant, then there is no sense in touching it. Solve the problem will have the construction of the drainage system.
And one more thing concerning the planning of the suburban area. Here you can not do without a specialist. This concerns the relief. That is, in the territory of the cottage there are always depressions and elevations. So, it is necessary to accurately determine their depth and height, respectively. This is necessary in order to determine the thickness of the dumping layer. With sufficiently high differences, it is probably worth using the services of a bulldozer or a grader in order to maximally level the plot.
And lastly - drainage.This engineering system is usually arranged in swampy areas and with high groundwater levels. Without it, it can not do, even if you make dumping a large layer. Moisture will still strive upwards. As for drainage, it is either open ditches or piping throughout the site, laid down below the groundwater table. Drainage is an extensive topic; we will not discuss it in this article.
There are a few more points to consider when planning the layout. This is the location of the main house and household buildings, automotive sites, paths and alleys. Will there be a pond on the territory of the summer cottage where lawns and flower beds, a garden and a vegetable garden will be located? This is an important moment, because it depends on what technology will be dumping, what materials will be used for this.
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In fact, materials are selected from two criteria:
under what object it is produced.
For example, if the thickness of the leveling layer does not exceed 40 cm, then it is ideal to dump the area with earth, meaning fertile. Today there are companies that are engaged in the production of soil, so to buy such a soil is not a problem. It costs a lot of money, and transportation will be expensive. But this is the only option.
Someone might think about it and not cut off the fertile layer somewhere in the waste area , so to speak, drawn. Remember one thing, that all land belongs to the state. Any work carried out on it must be licensed or authorized. If there is none, then you can’t touch the earth. Begin to take out the soil without permission - they will catch, fine, force to get the land back, and, perhaps, will open a criminal case.
We return to dumping. So, if the thickness of the leveling layer exceeds the above indicated figure, it is better to make dumping in two layers. The bottom of the cheap materials on which the plants can not live. Upper - fertile soil.
For example, the bottom layer is the dumping of a section with rubble (secondary, that is, used), brick fighting, sand and gravel, trenched soil, and other things. Pay attention to the foundation pit. If not far from your suburban area there is a large construction, then when digging out a pit the soil is considered to be waste material. Its builders must recycle. Therefore, it is worth a penny, you can even buy it for free. And if your site is located closer than the territory where it utilizes the excavated soil, the builders with great pleasure will dump you a few cars with their transport.
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Regarding the amount of material required. The calculation is quite simple. It is based on the thickness of the applied layer. For example, to fill 1 m² in height of 1 m, 1 m³ of bulk material is required. But consider the fact that sand, soil, crushed stone or gravel under the action of various loads over time will sit at 30-60%. That is, the sand and soil sown more than the battle of bricks, gravel or rubble.
A few recommendations that will help you to properly carry out the dumping.
In areas for green areas , sanding is required. Under the beds, the sand layer should not be less than 30 cm, under lawns within 10-15 cm.
Under access roads , under car roads, it is better to fall asleep under tracks rubble True, it should be noted that this material is expensive. Therefore, the use of so-called secondary rubble. This is a granular material obtained by crushing the waste of building structures. The raw materials used are bricks, concrete structures, asphalt, etc.
What kind of rubble is needed for dumping a summer cottage - the question asked by many private developers. It is better to lay a fraction of 20-40 mm under the access roads and platforms, and 5-20 mm under the sidewalks. Consider the fact that the filling of large granules sits more, and not the fact that the drawdown will occur evenly.
Under heavy buildings pour sand .
Experts recommend to make the dumping of the same material as the soil on the site. For example, if the soil on the construction site is loamy, then it is better to carry out the filling with loam. A strong bond is formed between the layers, which means that the surface of the new layer will not sag.For example, if rubble is poured on the loam, the stones will simply “sink” under softer material under the action of loads.
Many make the mistake of using clay as dumping. This material is dense, it does not let water through well through itself, so that the probability of formation of swampy areas appears. If there is no other material, the clay will have to be mixed with sand.
Some experts recommend laying geotextiles between the loose layers . This non-woven material does not allow materials located in different layers to mix. But geotextiles are not cheap material. And not always its styling leads to the high quality of the final result. In any case, you need to consult with a specialist.
The video shows how dumping was performed using geotextiles at the problem site:
It is necessary to immediately indicate that there are two options for dumping.
Surface . That is, the material for leveling the territory of the suburban area is simply imported and leveled.
Deep . To do this, remove the fertile soil, delivering poured material, and on top of the latter poured the removed soil.
The dumping option is selected at the planning stage. The first one is the simplest, so we will tell about the second.
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Clearing the territory of the dacha: demolishing buildings, removing large debris, digging trees and bushes along with the roots.
They remove the fertile layer and store it nearby outside the site. For example, the depth of fertile soil in areas of non-black Earth - 10-20 cm.
Lay the drainage system.
Along the perimeter of the section they construct a strip foundation with a height that will be 5–10 cm higher than the height of the dumping. "during subsequent operation. The foundation can be abandoned only if around the site the terrain is higher.
Everything is ready, you can start dumping . The materials purchased for bedding are laid out in layers of 10-15 cm, which are tamped. Before applying the top layer, you need to give 2-3 days to the bottom at least a little finally subsided.
Experts recommend immediately building on such a site not to engage in . It is necessary to give at least a year for the laid layers to take their final shape. It is advised to plant all over the plant with an extensive root system, for example, winter rye. It will help increase the density and strength of the earth. Although in zones where it is planned to organize a lawn or flower beds, a garden or a vegetable garden, it is possible to carry out works on gardening. There is no point in waiting in this case.
In the video, the specialist talks about how water drainage systems (drainage) and dumping were made at the problem site:
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As you can see, dumping a suburban area allocated for the construction of a private house, the process is complicated and costly. But, as practice shows, it does not stop anyone to become the happy owner of suburban real estate. But keep in mind that if there is a problem ground on the site, then you will have to invest a lot of money in it. That is, one must be prepared for this and not be angry at the fact that they have got involved in a "very heavy" business.