The main task, which solves the waterproofing of the basement, is considered to be the complex protection of the building from the destructive effects of moisture. The base of the dwelling is extensively in contact with surface waters and atmospheric manifestations, therefore, the comfort and durability of the house depends on how fully it is isolated.
This is a key event that can be implemented both during construction and after completion of all installation work. The ground floor combines the foundation and functional components of the building, and its resistance to aggressive external influences determines the reliability and durability of supporting structures.
The outer parts of the basement are most vulnerable, being forced to deal with precipitation, surface flows and groundwater-bearing deposits. Experts emphasize: the base and the upper part must necessarily be separated by heat and waterproofing materials. An important additional measure will be the drainage of the site, contributing to the regular removal of liquids from the risk zone.
Waterproofing of the basement on the outside can be horizontal and vertical. The first type is more related to outdoor activities: it consists in applying moisture-proof materials to the walls. Horizontal actions are reduced to processing the zone between the foundation and the outer segments.
The purpose of horizontal waterproofing of the basement from the outside is protection from capillary moisture, here the priority is rolled materials . When calculating the required amount of an insulator, specialists are based on the area to be processed and the estimated number of layers.
Vertical events are based on the following types of work:
painting . Surfaces are treated with special paintwork compositions. The main advantages of the technique are ease of implementation and the need only in a thin layer that can provide full protection. Among the minuses - a small operational resource, the need for regular updates;
impregnation . Liquid polymers, resins of synthetic origin capable of penetrating into the base material can be involved here. The advantage of this method is that substances literally fill cracks and cavities. The technique is also appropriate for the treatment of low base;
spreading . The surfaces are covered with a thick layer of thick pasty bitumen. Although the material exhibits excellent insulation performance, there is still a minus - a pronounced vulnerability to mechanical stress. In this aspect, more appropriate liquid glass is a durable, albeit expensive, material. There are no restrictions on the permissible height of the structure;
pasting with roofing paper is one of the traditional solutions.
On our site you can find contacts of construction companies that offer foundation repair service. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
Penetrating compositions . Professionals perform similar waterproofing of the foundation from the outside only at a positive temperature. Dry powder is diluted with water to a predetermined thickness, covered with a mixture of wet concrete base in several layers using special synthetic brushes. The composition is deeply impregnated with concrete, gradually filling in miniature cracks and pores - potential ways of moving moisture.
In addition to protection, substances contribute to enhancing the strength of concrete by 25-30%, increasing its ability to resist the effects of chemicals.
Rolled materials . They can cover any basement structures, it is one of the cheapest options, applied in 2-3 layers. In the event that the territory is characterized by a high degree of saturation with waters, experts use 4-5 layers.
Cut off the sheets are fixed with overlap, to further seal the joints filled with liquid waterproofing. The disadvantage of roll materials is the lack of protection against mechanical damage. If there is a high location of groundwater, do not do without drainage.
Abrasive waterproofing . Demanded for both internal and external use. In this segment, bitumen mastic, cement-polymer, polymer-bitumen mastic are relevant. The first type attracts with an affordable price, but it is not durable - it retains its protective properties for no more than 5 years.At low temperatures, the composition loses its strength and surface integrity.
It might be interesting! In the article on the following link read about waterproofing base plate.
Technological polymer-bitumen and cement-polymer mastics are not afraid of a sharp drop in temperature, they need protection from physical contact, mechanical destruction. Substances are applied in stages in several layers.
Membranes . Can be focused on internal and external work, their surface is dotted with small cone-shaped spikes, designed for the accumulation and output of fluid.
Injection compositions . Allocated to a subclass of penetrating substances, they are injected with a pressure pump into pre-prepared holes. Working with a fluid gel requires professional training and special equipment; this method introduces acrylate, polyurethane, epoxy mixtures, microcement.
Experts recommend that even during the construction phase perform masonry full brick, having a factory waterproofing treatment. This is an expensive material that does not need additional external protection.
If the base is made of standard red brick, one of the options for strengthening its water-repellent properties is applying several layers of bitumen mastic. Also, a worthy technique is the use of roofing material (fixation of sheets with overlap).
A more reliable solution is penetrating formulations of a two-component structure. They fill cracks and micropores, plug them, crystallize when they freeze. The result is an extremely reliable and durable coating.
It might be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the waterproofing of the basement from the inside.
The first step in the work technology is the arrangement of the drainage system - with its help, groundwater flows away from the cottage. Masters form a trench along the perimeter of the building, place a perforated pipe into it: this element collects liquid and directs it to the section below. The best option is a product with a geotextile coating.
For waterproofing the foundation of the basement, a blind area is formed around the perimeter of the building, asphalt or concrete can be used as the basis. Its standard width is 1 m, here you need to take care of the high-quality sealing of the joints using thiocol or urethane mastic. At the same stage, a clay castle is formed.
Video example of basement waterproofing using liquid rubber
The next step is the use of penetrating waterproofing. The thickness of the elastic layer can be only a few millimeters, it securely clogs the smallest holes.
Next, you can proceed to the internal strengthening of the walls.
Depending on the effect of moisture, experts offer several protection methods :
Anti-pressure . Relevant if the underground pressure is 10 m, there is no external reinforcement and drainage system. Here the insulating material is fixed precisely due to the pressure of water, in particular, it can be membrane materials, rubber, rolled seals.
Anti-capillary , that is, penetrating.
Free-flow - protects against seasonal flooding, based on bitumen mastic.
Walls must be thoroughly cleaned if cracks are present, they are expanded, ground and filled with mortar. Prepared vertical surfaces are coated with a primer, if necessary, reinforced with geotextile or mesh. Next, the walls are covered with bitumen mixtures or penetrating waterproofing.
The floor is also cleaned and primed before impregnating or covering it with a protective compound. Professionals here often use rolled materials, they are pre-rolled, measured and cut into convenient canvases. Self-adhesive variations facilitate the work - they remove the protective layer and force it to the floor. Hot work materials are preheated.
The waterproofing of the base from the inside is completed by applying a protective cement mixture to the floor, which contributes to additional insulation.
If there is a risk of subsidence of a structure, cement-mineral substances with waterproofing properties are not advisable here, since at the slightest shear they form cracks.Under such conditions, specialists have priority in elastic polymer materials that are resistant to low temperatures.
The high-tech injection technique is justified in restoring the basement surfaces; floors and walls. In an artificially formed cavity, a substance is injected with a special pump that is capable of filling cracks in the base material from the inside.
It might be interesting! In the article on the following link read about waterproofing a bathroom.
Waterproofing the exterior and interior processing of the base is a responsible task, which is better to entrust the professionals. Only with a serious approach can the building be resistant to environmental influences.