Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process

Today, the article will deal with a rather complex topic - wiring in the garage. The topic is complicated by the fact that today the garage is not only a haven of the car. This is almost a full-fledged workshop, where they use different power tools. Therefore, we will talk about how to create an efficiently working wiring diagram, what parameters to pay attention to when choosing materials, and the rules for conducting the installation process.

Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process

How to properly conduct the wiring in the garage

Rules for creating a scheme

It is easiest if the garage is built on , to which the power line has already been connected, a separate switchboard is installed. It remains only to hold the cable from the shield to the garage. If the latter is a building located far from the main house, then you will have to choose two connection options: from the house or a separate line from the pole, which is located outside the territory of the summer cottage. The second option is more difficult because the electricians who have access to this type of work can carry out the ventilation. In addition, in the garage will have to install a separate switchboard.

Now, as for the wiring diagram in the garage (wires and cables). First of all, the entry point of the external power cable is determined, as well as the location of the shield. Then the location of the lamps and sockets are applied to the scheme. All this is connected by wiring lines. What are the requirements for all these elements:

  • The wiring lines inside the garage should be laid only in vertical or horizontal directions. No slope .

  • The transition from the horizontal to the vertical section (and vice versa) is performed only at a right angle .

Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process

Wiring is horizontal and vertical sections
  • Distance of horizontal sections from the ceiling or floor , vertical from the corners of the building, window and door openings - 15 cm.

  • Same distance and to heating appliances (radiators , furnaces and others).

  • Number of sockets at the rate of one per 6 m 2 or every 4 m.

  • Installation height of sockets - 60 cm from the floor surface.

  • Installation height of the switches is 1.5 m. They are mounted at a distance of at least 15 cm from the door jamb.

  • If there is a basement and a viewing pit in the garage, then do not install sockets in them. This also applies to light switches. These elements are mounted in the garage itself in a convenient place.

The optimal solution is a three-phase wiring diagram. In this case, one phase is connected only to lighting devices, the other two are scattered on the sockets. If a three-phase connection is a problem, then use a single-phase (220 volt). For this option, you will have to accurately calculate the load on the cables and select the correct cross-section. This mainly concerns wires for outlets.

Again, it is again better to divide the circuit into two sections: for light bulbs and sockets. And for each cable you will have to choose a circuit breaker for power consumption and current strength.

Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process

Wiring layout with two sections: lighting and socket

How to calculate the amount of materials required

After creating Circuits can easily count the number of sockets and switches. Harder with the cable. It is necessary to apply the lines of cable laying on the internal walls of the garage. After that, each plot is measured by a tape measure and is added up to the total amount.

Please note that each cable will have its own cross section of wires. Therefore, the length of each section is calculated separately. Do not forget about the external line: from the pillar to the garage. Usually for this purpose copper cable with a cross section of 10 mm 2 is used. It will be enough even in the event that the garage is converted into a workshop.

As for the cable section for luminaires, a wire with a section of 1.0-1.5 mm 2 is suitable here. For sockets it is necessary to calculate the power of the equipment and power tools that will be connected to them. To do this, summarize the power of all devices, that is, determine the total power consumption, regardless of whether the tools will be operated simultaneously. The resulting value is increased by 20%. This is the so-called margin of safety. Now you need to refer to the special tables, which show the dependence of power consumption and the cross section of the electric cable. In the photo below one of these tables is presented.

Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process

Table of the ratio of power consumption and the electrical wiring cross section . And this is the maximum value. For many power tools, 2.5 mm 2 will suffice.

If the installation of electrical wiring in the garage will be done in an open way, then you have to count the number of fasteners and corrugations or cable channels. Of course, it is better to conduct hidden wiring followed by wall decoration. Wires will not be visible, which means they will not spoil the appearance of the premises. The only thing that needs to be done is to put the scheme in a safe place so as not to lose in case a nail should be hammered into one of the walls or a screw can be screwed in. In order not to damage the cable laid.

Wiring Installation Steps

Three Stages:

  • preparation;

  • mounting the outer section ;

  • mounting the internal circuit .

Preparatory work

They are mostly carried out inside the garage. The work carried out concerns the marking, the creation of places for the installation of sockets and switches, the places for fixing the lighting devices and the sections for laying the wires. Markup does not cause problems. It should be transferred from the scheme to the walls of the garage using a ruler and a pencil. If the garage is large, it is recommended to use a marking cord. Do not forget that all lines are applied only vertically or horizontally.

Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process

How to make a socket for a socket with a diamond crown
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Sockets for sockets, switches and split boxes make a diamond core drill. Walls in the walls are a special tool called a wall chaser. Although there are several ways to make shafts: from simple - a hammer with a chisel, to more effective - a puncher with a nozzle in the form of a blade. Although the wall chaser is both the speed of the operations performed and the flatness of the cut channels. But a lot of dust.

The depth and width of the strobe depends on the diameter of the electrical wire. But, as practice shows, both dimensional parameters usually do not exceed 2 cm.

As for the connection scheme of lighting in the garage. The cable in this case stretch across the ceiling. If the overlap is reinforced concrete slabs, then the cable is passed between them in the gap, which is subsequently covered with cement-sand mortar or ready-mixed plaster. If the overlap is one monolithic plate, then the cable is passed through a corrugation, which is attached to the ceiling with clamps for self-tapping screws.

Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process

Fastening electrical wiring to the ceiling

Cabling in the street

There are two ways: air and underground. It is better to choose the first, as the most simple and easy. There are some requirements that apply to this type of wiring:

  1. If you have to run the cable over the roadway, then laying height should not be less than 6 m.

  2. Above pedestrian area of ​​at least 3.75 m.

  3. Entry into the garage should be at height not less than 2.75 m.

  4. If the distance from the power line pole to the garage is more than 25 m, you will have to install an additional intermediate support .

A few words about the third requirement. Garage - the building is low, so this parameter is difficult to sustain. To solve the problem, proceed as follows - from a steel pipe with a diameter of 20-32 mm make a stand in the form of a curved structure, as shown in the photo below. This device is attached to the roof of the garage or to the wall.

Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process

Pipe stand, as an input device for an electric cable in a garage building
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If it is decided to conduct an underground strip, then there are no serious requirements for it. The only important requirement is to use an armored cable, in the marking of which there is a letter β€œb”, for example, VBbShv.

From the power transmission pole, a trench is dug in the direction of the garage, where the cable product is laid. In order not to damage the laid electric wire during any excavation work at the dacha, it is better to put the cable in a steel or plastic pipe, the diameter of which should be two more than the diameter of the cable itself. Steel pipe must be waterproofed, for example, it is coated with bitumen mastic.

It is very important that melt-water or rainwater does not get into the pipe, therefore, near the power transmission pole, upward discharge is performed, the end of which is sealed. To protrude a tap above the ground surface should be at least 5 cm. If the distance from the power transmission tower to the garage is 0.6-0.8 m, then it is not necessary to lay the cable in the pipe.

From the opposite side, the pipe and cable lead into the garage itself. To do this, you must first leave a through hole in the foundation of the building.Usually stack steel or plastic pipe.

It should be noted that the underground method is a time-consuming option, armored cable is expensive, and you have to purchase a pipe. But he, as practice shows, is more durable than a gasket.

The video shows how to lay the cable in an underground way:

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Internal wiring

Electricity in a garage, like in any other room or building, is done in two ways: hidden and open. The first is the installation of the cable in the grooves. The second - on the walls, but in a special box-channels.

Hidden method

Installation of the cable begins with cutting it into pieces, the length of which is equal to the lengths of the cables, plus 10%. Then mount the junction boxes. They are sunk into the nest, where they fasten with screws on plastic dowels or plaster mortar. Many use the combined version, although two screws is enough.

The cable is laid in the grooves, where it is fixed with plastic clamps and screws. Previously used for fixing alabaster. Many masters also use it today. But it is better to use modern fasteners.

An important point is the wiring between the cables. The twists protected by an electrical tape went into oblivion, instead of them today they use terminal blocks of different types. This is primarily a high security connection, the density of the junction of the wires to each other.

So, the internal electrical wiring in the garage is almost over. It remains only to seal the grooves with plaster mortar, to mount sockets and switches with connecting them to the electrical wires.

Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process

Hidden wiring in the garage

Exterior method

If the garage is a wooden or metal structure, then conduct the wiring can only open way. This will require special devices - the so-called cable channels. This two-meter length of the box, consisting of two parts: the base (box) and cover.

The base is fixed with self-tapping screws along the printed lines of the wiring diagram, pre-cutting them along the length of each section. Their final installation point is sockets and switches. The intermediate element - junction boxes. All elements, as well as cable channels, are fastened to the walls with screws. They do not sink into the thickness of the walls, so for this method of installation, electricians will need external sockets, switches and electrical distribution boxes.

Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process

Outdoor wiring in the garage
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As soon as all electrical wires are laid and connected to the end points, the cable channels are covered with covers. The latter are attached to the base using latches located along all the length of the device. First, the cable channels do not spoil the appearance of the walls of the garage. Secondly, it is always possible to easily remove the covers and check the condition of the wiring. It is clear that repairing or replacing cables is also easier.

The video shows how to properly conduct the wiring in the garage using cable channels:

Installation of the switchboard

Situation when the garage is connected separately from the main house on a country site, it is rare. After all, it is necessary to install a separate switchboard in the garage, where the metering of electricity consumption is also mounted. The complexity of installing the shield and its connection is low. But all this equipment will have to be purchased, and these are extra financial costs.

But if such a situation arose, then the shield itself is installed on the wall of the garage: either inside or outside. The second option is preferable, it is always possible to prevent inspectors from entering the garage. Fastening is made on screws and plastic dowels. Installation height is 1.8 m. It is recommended to install a separate circuit breaker for each cable, and one common input is required.

The video shows how to properly install a switchboard in the garage:

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Conclusion on the topic

As you can see, it will take a lot of effort and time to conduct electrical wiring in the garage. You should not treat this event with a cool. With electricity, jokes are bad, even in a building as small as a garage. Pay special attention to the area to the outlet to which the welding machine or compressor will be connected. Both types of equipment are powerful enough, which means that they will have to pick up large sections of cable. It is better to pick up with a margin of at least 10%.


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