Electrical wiring in the garage: the rules of the installation process
Today, the article will deal with a rather complex topic - wiring in the garage. The topic is complicated by the fact that today the garage is not only a haven of the car. This is almost a full-fledged workshop, where they use different power tools. Therefore, we will talk about how to create an efficiently working wiring diagram, what parameters to pay attention to when choosing materials, and the rules for conducting the installation process.
Rules for creating a scheme
It is easiest if the garage is built on , to which the power line has already been connected, a separate switchboard is installed. It remains only to hold the cable from the shield to the garage. If the latter is a building located far from the main house, then you will have to choose two connection options: from the house or a separate line from the pole, which is located outside the territory of the summer cottage. The second option is more difficult because the electricians who have access to this type of work can carry out the ventilation. In addition, in the garage will have to install a separate switchboard.
Now, as for the wiring diagram in the garage (wires and cables). First of all, the entry point of the external power cable is determined, as well as the location of the shield. Then the location of the lamps and sockets are applied to the scheme. All this is connected by wiring lines. What are the requirements for all these elements:
The wiring lines inside the garage should be laid only in vertical or horizontal directions. No slope .
The transition from the horizontal to the vertical section (and vice versa) is performed only at a right angle .
Distance of horizontal sections from the ceiling or floor , vertical from the corners of the building, window and door openings - 15 cm.
Same distance and to heating appliances (radiators , furnaces and others).
Number of sockets at the rate of one per 6 m 2 or every 4 m.
Installation height of sockets - 60 cm from the floor surface.
Installation height of the switches is 1.5 m. They are mounted at a distance of at least 15 cm from the door jamb.
If there is a basement and a viewing pit in the garage, then do not install sockets in them. This also applies to light switches. These elements are mounted in the garage itself in a convenient place.
The optimal solution is a three-phase wiring diagram. In this case, one phase is connected only to lighting devices, the other two are scattered on the sockets. If a three-phase connection is a problem, then use a single-phase (220 volt). For this option, you will have to accurately calculate the load on the cables and select the correct cross-section. This mainly concerns wires for outlets.
Again, it is again better to divide the circuit into two sections: for light bulbs and sockets. And for each cable you will have to choose a circuit breaker for power consumption and current strength.
How to calculate the amount of materials required
After creating Circuits can easily count the number of sockets and switches. Harder with the cable. It is necessary to apply the lines of cable laying on the internal walls of the garage. After that, each plot is measured by a tape measure and is added up to the total amount.
Please note that each cable will have its own cross section of wires. Therefore, the length of each section is calculated separately. Do not forget about the external line: from the pillar to the garage. Usually for this purpose copper cable with a cross section of 10 mm 2 is used. It will be enough even in the event that the garage is converted into a workshop.
As for the cable section for luminaires, a wire with a section of 1.0-1.5 mm 2 is suitable here. For sockets it is necessary to calculate the power of the equipment and power tools that will be connected to them. To do this, summarize the power of all devices, that is, determine the total power consumption, regardless of whether the tools will be operated simultaneously. The resulting value is increased by 20%. This is the so-called margin of safety. Now you need to refer to the special tables, which show the dependence of power consumption and the cross section of the electric cable. In the photo below one of these tables is presented.
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