The article will tell about the varieties and design of gable and multi-gable roofs. You will learn about the structural differences, advantages, disadvantages, as well as the features of the calculations and the stages of installation of polycable roofs, which is carried out in a specific order.
The multi-gable roof is a system rafters with ramps that are interconnected. The name Spitz or pediment is used, but only if the area is separated from the wall of the building. If the wall has several forceps or gables, then it is multi-tip.
The number of forceps is not limited. But most often designs consist of two, three or four systems. The purpose of the forceps is different.
The installation process itself is complicated and costly due to the design features, the amount of materials required.
Multiple roofs are a frequent choice of those home owners who can afford to build a building, something like a castle. But over time, it became possible to use simpler structures for the construction of forceps in low-cost country houses.
The upper part of the building, which is limited by two slopes, is called a gable. The complexity of the design depends on the number of crossed slopes.
The dual-slope roof is the most popular option in the construction of residential buildings. Its advantages are in the following points:
several options angle patterns for the connection;
under the roof there may be an operated attic or residential attic;
duration of service life directly depends on the materials used;
ease of installation , repair, reconstruction;
angle of inclination , thanks to which rainwater and melting snow are effectively discharged.
The supporting frame of a gable roof is built from rafters or roof trusses. The first is used in most residential buildings.
The second is for the construction of a building with a large area where a high operational load will be marked.
Rafters in a gable roof can be hanging or sliding. The first does not direct the load on the supporting structure due to the lack of support. The second type of rafters has a support - the run installed on vertical racks.
Hanging rafters are used to create a used attic or attic. Overhead - to enhance the strength of the structure when using heavy roofing material, or significant snow loads are assumed.
A truss truss is a structure in which straight elements and hinge assemblies are used to avoid bending loads. The farm allows you to reduce the weight of the frame, increase the spans and reduce the cost of materials. Sometimes the structure is assembled on the ground, after which it rises to the top. This allows to improve the build quality and speed up the installation process.
The Quadrant Roof results from the intersection of dual-slope structures.
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Because of this additional structural element, two simple systems form the technological complexity of a multi-gable roof. Difficulties arise in the calculations and installation of parts for multi-gable roofing. If the inner corner has shortcomings, it can lead to leakage and violation of the integrity of the coating.
Multi-gable roofs make it possible to combine different types of structures. In this case, all crossed ramps may have dormer windows.
The gable roof is the best option for the construction of single-story buildings with a large area.
If the building is in the shape of the letter "P", "T" "T", in this case only a multi-gable roof can be used. An effective option to get rid of gables are hip slopes.
The multi-slope roof has the following advantages :
external view ;
possibility of use in complex projects;
duration of the operational period;
can be used in homes from any materials ;
snow does not accumulate;
the space under the roof can be used rationally;
a variety of architectural solutions;
effective drainage .
A multi-slope roof has the following drawbacks :
the drainage system must be branched ;
high material consumption ;
high cost because of the need to use additional elements in large quantities;
you can only use some of the roofing materials;
you need a competent approach to design and installation.
The complexity of the calculation process will depend entirely on the individual elements of the project.
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Experts lay out the entire project in simple shapes to facilitate counting.
When calculating, a three-pointed roof is used. The calculation begins with the definition of the height of the ridge, which depends on the width of the building or extension and the angle of the slope. If the problem is solved with another unknown, then first determine the angle of the slope of the slopes.
Next, the parameters of the main rafter legs are calculated, different for the building and the annex. At the same time, the length of rafters from skate to mauerlat is determined.
There are some peculiarities when determining the length of the cropped truss foot.
the red line is the hypotenuse, and the blue line (the length of the main building rafters) and green (1/2 extension width) - legs. Calculations are carried out using the Pythagorean theorem.
To determine the length of the blathers, use the calculator for calculating horny roof blisters. The calculation procedure in both cases is identical, only the direction of installation of the women flies changes.
If the rafters additionally perform the functions of an eaves, the leg length increases. To do this, use the calculator to calculate the elongation of the rafters to form the eaves overhang. In some cases, experts resort to the use of lengthening fillies, but for them it is necessary to calculate the required length.
Next, the section of the rafters is determined, which depends entirely on the loads imposed on the roof. For the correct calculation of the cross section, additional elements of the support of the rafter legs are placed. The corresponding calculator is used: the calculation of a certain unloading on feet.
The roof area is calculated to purchase the correct amount of materials required. The total area includes:
a pair of angular skates without a triangle layered with rafters along the end line;
a pair trapezoidal skates.
A large number of different types of multi-gable roofs does not allow defining a single system for installation. Ways of connecting knots happen simple or difficult.
The construction of the roof system of a multi-hoop roof begins with the installation and fixing of the power plate to the concrete base. There are 3 types of fasteners:
Used embedded stud with thread. The distance between the pins is approximately 70-80 cm. Holes are drilled in the bar for further fastening 1-2 mm larger in diameter than the pins themselves.
Steel smooth wire . The method is divided into two possible options. The first - fits across the beam, which eliminates the need to drill holes. The timber is attracted by the wire to the concrete. The second - the segments are mounted along the wall, and the ends extend above the formwork. To do this, you will need to drill holes so that the ends can be passed through the bar and twisted.
With the use of brackets . There are several bracket configurations on the market. Models differ from each other by fastening element. Some are attached to the sides or wall in prepared anchors or holes. This method of fasteners is the most popular when installing timber on the wall.
Regardless of the mounting method chosen for mounting the plate, you need to take care of the waterproofing cut-off between concrete and wood. For this, bitumen mastic is used than the surface is processed, and then several layers of roofing material are laid.
Several connection methods are used when attaching the attic floor beam to the power plate.
With the use of fortified corners connecting the parallel bars with each other using self-tapping screws.
In the traditional way - hem . To do this, a notch of 1/2 thickness is cut in the mauerlate, and a spike of shape and size identical to the notch is cut on the ceiling beam. The spike is installed in the hole, additionally used hammer for podbivi. In some designs, an additional mount using corners is used.
When using overlapping in the construction of the overhang, they cut into the mauerlat, in detail grooves with a depth of 1/2 of the beam are created. For additional fixing, metal corners are used.
Fixing beams on the mauerlate with steel brackets driven into the beam and into the timber.
When attaching a beam to a truss foot, one of several methods is used:
Fixing a truss foot is done using brackets , the length is set between 25 - 35 cm.
The easiest way to fasten is to fix with corners . To ensure maximum fit, grooves for the corners are cut in the rafters.
Making a roof is based on a structure consisting of a rafter. The rafters themselves are made of wood or shaped pipe. But the stages of work will be largely similar:
Definition of the correct length and section of the beam.
valleys, stops, and skates are laid out.
Installation power supply .
Installing rafter from timber.
Installation of the lathing, waterproofing layer, insulation and roofing.
The choice of the slope of the slope is selected depending on the climatic conditions of the region and customer desires. In some cases, select the right angle of inclination.
The installation work of the truss system is carried out in accordance with the algorithm:
Creating a waterproofing layer at the top of the walls using mastic ruberoid.
Securing the power plate .
Markup Marker . It is necessary to note the point of attachment of the beam to the ceiling. Between the bars should be a distance of about 60 cm for filling insulation.
A rough floor should be performed on top of the ceiling beams, for which board boards are used. This is necessary to facilitate movement at roof level.
Installing the center racks .
Installing the ridge bar on the rack.
Fixing the frame with using two triangular segments.
Installation slit rafters for endova formation.
Installing other truss feet .
Installation of elements for hardening of the structure.
At the end of the work, the protruding ends of the rafters are trimmed.
In the video, you can see the roof structure:
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Construction of a multi-spit roof is a complex process that requires not only knowledge, but also skills. Therefore, the construction should be engaged in professionals. Financial and labor costs directly depend on the number of forceps, the type and characteristics of the project - an accurate estimate can be obtained only after performing preliminary calculations.