Pools have long ceased to be something unusual in the suburban areas. The range offered by manufacturers allows even low-budget options that are affordable for a family with low incomes. But we in this article will be interested in a stationary pool for the garden. This is not the cheapest pleasure, but such a hydraulic structure solves a number of problems where long-term operation is the most important. So, we will tell about what stationary basins are, how they differ from each other, according to what construction characteristics. And also we will understand how such objects are constructed.
The question is which pool to buy to the country, let worries those who solve this problem from an economic point of view. In stores, for example, inflatable models are sold, which are exactly suitable for these purposes. They are not expensive, the main thing for them is a flat platform. These pools are inflated with an electric pump, which is included in the product package.
Some of these pools come with a frame, thereby increasing the depth of the bowl. Improved version, more comfortable from the standpoint of water treatment. But it costs more. Although the choice of a frame pool to give in this case - the best solution. There are many problems with inflatable frameless ones: they quickly fail, they are quickly blown away in the sun, they have a shallow depth, so for adults it is an uncomfortable option.
This category also includes so-called collapsible models. They are made of high-strength plastic in the form of several segments that are simply interconnected in a single structure with a seal of a waterproofing seal. Install such a pool, like an inflatable, on a flat platform. Use it only in the summer. After the end of the swimming season, the device is disassembled and stored under a shed or in any utility room. In the summer it is collected again.
It is necessary to pay tribute to the fact that collapsible models are more functional structures. They must install a water filtration system. In some it is possible to meet and illumination.
Now, as for stationary types of pools for summer cottage. There are three varieties in this category: plastic, concrete, of composite material. But you need to start the story by saying that the term "stationary" should be understood as a pool, which is installed in a certain area for many years. It is not removed for the winter, is not re-installed in the summer. The only thing that such pools differ from each other only in the material from which the thicket is made. There are other differences, but they are indirect. For example, with a canopy or without a canopy, fully enclosed (in the pavilion) or partially, illuminated or not, enhanced filtration system or simple. The more options, the more expensive the pool itself.
This is a classic of the genre. Concrete hydraulic structures used for a long time. The technology of their construction is difficult, but worked out to the smallest detail. And those who decide to build this particular construction at the dacha must understand that it will take a lot of money, time and labor to build it.
We must pay tribute to concrete structures, they will serve their masters for at least 100 years. For example, polypropylene thickets, which are so popular among summer residents today, will last no more than 30 years. But it should be noted that a properly filled concrete pool is properly selected building materials. This refers to their brand with technical characteristics.
Special attention to concrete, in which the brand should not be below M350. And it should be made of Portland cement M400. In this case, it is very important to take into account such an indicator as frost resistance, which should be within the limits of F100, and water resistant W6. It is this concrete that must be ordered during the construction of the pool.
Here are some important points :
Nearby large trees should not grow. Their roots will eventually destroy even a thick layer of concrete. In addition, the leaves will constantly litter the artificial reservoir.
You must first determine the groundwater level . It should be low enough, within 2 m. If this level is equal to even 1.5 m, then it is better to abandon the concrete structure in favor of another variety.
It is not recommended to build a hydraulic structure near large buildings that have a deep foundation.
The optimal variant of the soil type for the pool construction is clay . It is denser than sand and with a small bandwidth.
At the design stage, it is necessary to determine the direction of the wind . It is necessary to install an overflow pipe in the place where the wind will nail fallen leaves and other debris.
And one more thing to pay attention to Attention. This is the choice of a water intake system for filtration. There are two types: overflow and skimmer. The first is when the water from the bowl overflows over the edges, falls into the concrete groove and flows along the slope in the direction of the water intake pipe. The second is that there are nozzles installed on the walls of the bowl closer to the upper edges, through which water immediately flows into the cleaning systems. This option is preferable.
Spontaneously, even earthworks do not begin. It is important to accurately determine the shape and size of the pool. Therefore, be sure to order a project for it. Of course, the landlord himself sets the size of the hydraulic structure and its shape. But the designer must take into account the requirements of the SNiP.
So, the project is there, the shape and dimensions of the concrete structure are transferred to the construction site. And then increase the parameters based on the size of the pit. Usually, 60-80 cm are added from each side. As for the depth, here the thickness of the bedding, the so-called bottom plate and the thickness of the finishing material are taken into account.
The pit is dug out by special equipment, the sizes are additionally earned by shovels. The main thing is a flat bottom and walls. The latter, in order for the soil not to crumble, are made at an angle of 5 0 .
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Now we need to form the bottom of the pool. Usually, it is at this stage that the drain pipe is laid, having previously determined its location. This has already been taken into account in the project, so it is necessary to determine this place on the site, make a pit in it and dig a trench for the pipe. After which it is mounted with the output of the drain pipe.
Further, according to the following scheme:
a layer of sand of 15 cm thickness is filled up, which is immediately rammed;
crushed stone 15 cm thick, which is also compacted;
roll waterproofing in two layers, one across the other.
Please note that both layers of the pillow must be laid with a slope towards the sewer pipe nozzle.
As for waterproofing, it is often made double, that is, under and above the pillow. Some companies waterproof the soil, and already pour sand and gravel on it. All options are acceptable.
A stationary basin of concrete without reinforcement is not constructed. Therefore, two gratings of steel reinforcement are placed one above the other at the bottom. The diameter of the reinforcing bars - 10-14 mm. The size of the grid cells is 20x20 cm. The lower one should be 5 cm above the pillow, the upper one below the bottom plate 5 cm. Since the bottom of the pool is filled with a thickness of 20-25 cm, a gap of 10-15 cm is left between the grids. >
The reinforcement is not welded together, but tied with wire. This is an important point. Install grilles on special stands, they are either metal or plastic. Preference is given to metal.
And one more thing. The armature of the pool bottom should be connected with the frame of the bowl walls. Therefore, the ends laid at the bottom of the reinforcement bend up. Bend length - at least 10 cm.
Everything is simple here. Commodity concrete is poured immediately to cover the bottom of the bowl. Be sure to withstand a bias towards the drain sewer. And be sure to carry out the vibration of the concrete mix for its compaction and air extrusion, which gets there in the form of bubbles in the process of mixing. Air cells reduce the strength of the structure.
After a week or 10 days, you can proceed to the construction of the walls of the pool.
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For this you need to build a formwork around the perimeter of the bowl. It is better to make it from moisture-resistant plywood with a thickness of 21 mm. You can use hewn cut boards, it is easier to work with plywood.
The outer formwork wall is placed 40 cm from the wall of the excavation. Be sure to take into account the thickness of the wall structure. Usually it is 20 cm.
Two grids are installed in the formwork , which are tied to the bendings of the bottom frame.The dimensions of the reinforcing grids are exactly the same as those of the bottom ones.
Pour concrete , which is also vibrated.
After seven days you can remove the formwork .
After 20 days, the external surfaces of the walls of the pool are waterproofed . Usually, this is bitumen mastic, on which roll insulation is placed on the basis of bitumen-polymer compositions. After that, the gaps between the walls of the pool and the pit are covered with soil.
The video shows the sequence of operations performed for the construction of a concrete pool:
Important the stage on which it depends whether the basin will leak. First, all the inner planes of the bowl are plastered, leveling them. To do this, use the usual plaster mixtures with moisture-resistant characteristics.
Then continuous waterproofing is carried out, for which a polymer composition is used. He is blue. Apply with a roller, brush or spatula. Optimally - apply two layers.
The next stage is the finish. There is a huge variety of offers. As the simplest - PVC film of different colors. You can use ceramic tiles, mosaics and more.
The choice of a pool for giving often confronts consumers with a question , and whether it is necessary to fence an expensive and complex concrete structure, if the market has offers of ready bowls. The question is correct. From it, in principle, manufacturers repelled themselves, in order to make the process of building pools simple and fast.
So, what are stationary type plastic pools. This is a polypropylene sheet construction with a thickness of 0.6-1.5 mm. The thicker, the more expensive.
Plastic has a very smooth surface, hence its performance characteristics with regard to proper cleaning of the tank. On the walls of the bowl is not going to dirt and algae do not grow. You can use any reagents for cleaning, because the polymer is a material that is neutral to chemistry.
Such a pool can easily withstand temperatures from -50C to + 80C. That is, he will survive the winter without problems. The construction itself is hermetic, so no additional waterproofing should be done. By the way, a smooth surface under water does not become slippery.
As you can see, fixed plastic pools have a decent list of advantages. But there are drawbacks:
manufacturers do not accept these products to order, therefore there are limitations in terms of size and shape;
in comparison with concrete models, they have a shorter service life .
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Since this is a finished construction with its dimensions and shape, they are simply transferred to the construction site. And then make sure the expansion in the range of 40-50 cm on each side. It is along these lines that a line is being dug.
As for the depth, the thickness is taken into account:
gravel-sand pillow - 15-20 cm;
reinforced concrete slab 20-25 cm, which will be a reliable and durable base for the bowl;
layer of hydro- and thermal insulation - 2-15 cm.
The bottom of the excavation is leveled, it is covered with a layer of sand and rubble. Each layer is tamped. Conduct waterproofing using rolled material. Mount the two reinforcement cage grilles, as shown in the concrete basin. Pour concrete.
After drying another layer of waterproofing is placed, you can additionally carry out insulation using polystyrene foam plates. And already on the ready basis establish a bowl of the plastic pool.
It remains to pour the concrete around the perimeter of the bowl. That is, the latter should be in a kind of sarcophagus, which will hold the container itself in one position. It is done this way:
Install the formwork around the perimeter. It is one-sided, because the walls of the pool will serve as the internal fencing of the formwork.
The inside set up a reinforcing frame of two grids. It is attached to the reinforced frame bottom plate.
Pour inside the bowl water to a height of half a meter.
Fill the same form in the formwork and concrete solution . It is important to control that the concrete mix fills all the voids, and that the walls of the plastic bowl do not enter inside.
Then again they poured water half a meter, and they also poured concrete. And in this way to the edge of the pool. This technology avoids the negative pressure of concrete on the walls of the plastic bowl, that is, it is eliminated inward.
7-10 days after the final pouring the formwork is removed .
The outside concrete structure is waterproofed .
Spend filling of the gap between the concrete wall and the walls of the pit with soil.
There is a technology in which pouring of the bowl is not performed. For this purpose, spacers are installed from inside the pool, which will keep the walls from bending inward.
The video shows the sequence of construction operations for the installation of a plastic basin:
Raw material - fiberglass. This is a polymer based on polyester resin with the addition of fiberglass, which serves as a reinforcing frame. This composite produces lightweight, but very durable structures. By the way, the hulls of boats, yachts and boats are made from it today.
Fiberglass products have a stronger structure than plastic. They will serve at least 50 years. As for the method of installation, it is exactly the same as that of the polystyrene models. But there is another simplified version.
Construct a pillow at the bottom of the excavated ditch .
Set on it a bowl of composite material, which is placed on the horizon.
The space between the basin and the walls of the pit is filled up with a mixture of sand and crushed stone in proportions of 1: 1, which is well tamped. It is not necessary to pour water into the tank.
Which pool would be better to buy for giving: plastic or fiberglass. Probably, the question is not correct. It all depends on the price of the product and on the consumer ability of consumers. Plastic is cheaper than composite, but the latter have a longer service life.
The video shows how to install a pool in a country house of composite material:
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So, we have dealt with fixed pools. It is clear why ready-made plastic bowls are so popular today. They are inexpensive, their installation is simple, usually the team performs the installation for the day, if the operation is carried out in a simplified way without concrete. It is easy to operate and maintain these pools. Their smooth surface does not collect dirt on themselves, but if only at the bottom. In general, in all respects, it is these two types that are ideal for constructing a hydraulic object at a dacha.