Protecting the soil and the building from water erosion is a primary task both in the design and in the arrangement of the site. Particularly relevant is the issue of water diversion for areas located in low-lying areas, near water bodies, in regions with high humidity, and a large amount of precipitation. The problem is solved by the installation of drainage, for which often use drainage pipes for removal of groundwater. Let us try to figure out when drainage is needed for the removal of groundwater, and which materials are best used in different situations.
Complex calculations and the study of soils are carried out when planning serious and responsible buildings, engineering structures, roads, bridges and tunnels, residential areas.
At the level of the owner of the dacha plot, a small country house, a garage, and outbuildings, complex calculations are not in demand, since they are rather expensive and incomprehensible in practical household use of the land plot.
The design of a garden, a kitchen garden, and even a dwelling house is carried out on the basis of general data on the approximate level of groundwater, the proximity of the reservoir, information about the depth of the well or well, spring floods, and other information.
At the same time, almost all owners of private houses, cottages and land plots faced the problem of drainage, water drainage and other issues of land reclamation and water use, which requires a drainage system to drain groundwater.
Despite the apparent simplicity of work, it is difficult to figure out which device of the drainage system for groundwater drainage will be optimal in a particular case, and what materials: filters, pipes for draining water from the site. Errors at this stage lead to the need to completely redo the drainage, which entails not only additional costs, but also the need to re-change the design and arrangement of the site.
It is much easier and more economical to turn to professionals who can carry out the necessary calculations and make a turnkey drainage system.
You can’t do without drainage at the site if:
Water-loving plants dominate the garden and garden, a sow thistle appeared, the ground is soft and moist all year round, trees grow poorly, some die, a garden on the soil and trees appeared moss. All these are signs of excessive soil moisture - water drainage is required.
High humidity in the basement or basement room, condensation on the basement walls, the appearance of microcracks on the basement of the building, the appearance of distortions in door and window openings, a feeling of dampness and mold in the room. The building must be saved - without drainage works, the foundation and the house will be destroyed.
Even after a small amount of precipitation falls, puddles remain for a long time, blind areas crack and move away from the basement, pavements and pavements subside - at least surface water is required.
Drainage systems for groundwater disposal can be divided into two main types: open and closed:
Open surface drainage is a conventional ditch with a slope directed to natural water collectors or drainage wells.
Closed water drainage systems include ditches filled with a layer of rubble or sand, or with trays or perforated pipes installed in them for groundwater drainage, filled with soil.
The main feature of a properly arranged drainage system is the ability of water to run down pipes by gravity without using pumps.
This provides an accurately measured angle of inclination to the drainage well or spillway. In practice, one degree of inclination means that through a distance of one hundred meters the drainage pipe will sink into the ground by one meter (on a flat stretch). To create a fast current by increasing the angle of inclination to anything - to accomplish the task of diverting water, a slope of about two degrees is sufficient.
In practice, no one can dig a flat drainage ditch with a perfect incline. Adding to the bottom of a trench of sand and rubble allows you to accurately leveled marks and slopes.
Today, almost no one uses asbestos-cement and ceramic pipes in drainage works to divert water under a road or on a section. Their quality and price are good, but the cost of installation is not comparable with modern light and easy-to-use materials.
On our site you can find contacts of construction companies who offer the service of installation and design of water supply and sanitation. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
Polyethylene. The most common material for the manufacture of drainage pipes. Most often sold in corrugated form with a length in the bay up to 50 m. Not enough heat-resistant, but this property is not considered to be decisive for pipe drainage. Today, the market offers another original solution - polymeric materials perforated drainage without length, without joints and joints up to 100 m long.
Polypropylene. Heat-resistant, durable, the price is higher than analogues from other materials, is rarely used in drainage.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). It is characterized by high resistance to aggressive chemicals, high strength, heat resistance. PVC pipes are completed with fittings of the same material. The most in demand products with a diameter of 110-200 mm, are made in lengths of 6 and 12 m. Characteristic feature: easy cutting of the desired length by an ordinary hand-saw for metal.
Drainage pipes for groundwater discharge should have holes or slots, they are called perforations. They are designed to get water into the drainage system. Round holes have a diameter of 1.5 to 5 mm. If necessary, 5 mm wide holes are cut through, their length is not regulated.
The number of holes and their location do not have standard norms, but the cuts in the corrugation should be located on the lower wave. Often, manufacturers make holes only on one side of the pipe - when laying you need to pay attention that they are on top.
Few private developers have information about the depth and thickness of the groundwater stratum or operate with numbers of average annual precipitation at the drainage site.
Therefore, it is necessary to be guided by average statistical norms:
the diameter of the main drainage should be in the range from 160 to 200 mm;
drainage groundwater pipes for the installation of secondary branches of the system must be at least 110 mm.
The need for materials of special strength with various design solutions and features has arisen with the demand for technologies of deep-seated drainage systems with large loads on the surface layer Highways.
Several layers in the pipe design give it the necessary strength and durability . The top layer is almost always corrugated - it is he who increases the strength characteristics of the drainage pipe.
The pipes are designated by the abbreviation SN, the digital index after it means the maximum possible penetration of the drainage pipe under the road in meters. SN16 marking means a multilayer pipe with an allowable immersion depth of 16 meters - this is the maximum design depth for drains.
Single-layer pipes are common in the construction of small local drainage systems for personal households and personal plots. Can be smooth, which is typical for products made of polyvinyl chloride, or corrugated, most often made of polyethylene.
It may be interesting! In the article on the following link read about rubble for drainage.
Corrugations of drainage pipes are often a determining factor when choosing pipes for drainage.
When using them:
No need for additional elements of connections: elbows, elbows. Significantly decreases the number of butt joints, and hence the leakage associated with them.
Allows the preparation of trenches to simplify the requirements for the geometry of the drainage scheme, and, consequently, to facilitate and reduce the cost of the installation process.
You can find tips on how to choose drainage pipes in the video:
The price of drainage pipes depends on many factors:
number of layers;
Approximate prices for popular types of pipes are presented in the table.
|Pipe Name|| |
|Drainage pipe PND|| |
|HDD drainage pipe with|| |
|Pipe drainage PND 2-layer|| |
|Pipe Drainage PND 2-layer with geotextiles|| |
|Drainage pipe PND perforated with geotextile|| |
The main problem of drainage systems is possible silting. Deposits of soil particles that have penetrated into the pipes are capable of creating traffic jams and completely stop the functioning of the drainage system. Correctly performed installation allows the drainage system to operate smoothly for decades without additional costs and with a small amount of maintenance work.
The type of filtering layer largely depends on the soil of the drainage area.
The filter can be:
crushed stone, gravel, brick and concrete combat;
fabric materials (for example, geotextiles);
polymeric membranes and natural materials.
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about drainage without rubble.
Non-woven material that performs the most important function of a fine filter in drainage systems. He is able to hold even the smallest particles of sand. Today you can buy pipes already wrapped with geotextiles - they can be laid immediately on any base, without fear of the occurrence of traffic jams.
You can use geotextiles without wrapping the pipes directly with them. The material is laid on a sand pad, then rubble is poured, a pipe is laid, then a layer of rubble is again and then another layer of geotextile.
As a general recommendation only, you can characterize the soils as follows:
The sandy soil itself is filtering. It is only necessary to wrap the drainage pipes with geotextiles, protecting them from the ingress of the smallest grains of sand, and also to make additional filling with rubble.
For crushed stone soil, the best solution would be to use rigid perforated pipes, plus additional gravel or crushed stone bedding.
In clay soils, sometimes it is enough to lay pipes without a filter fabric layer — enough macadam filling or a coconut filter.
When constructing a drainage system, consider the following points:
The collection of water in the well should be at the lowest point site, it is desirable to equip the well with a pump for pumping excess water.
Wells are constructed with a diameter of 50 cm - with a deep occurrence of the joints, the diameter of the well should be convenient for the person to work in it.
Pipe docking does not have to be hermetic. When the required fitting is not available, it is possible to carry out a simple inset of a pipe of a smaller diameter into a larger one - inaccuracies of the inset will play the role of additional perforation.
Common errors in arranging the drainage system and the choice of materials are described and shown in detail in the video:
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the foundation drainage with your own hands.
In order for the drainage system at the site to effectively perform its functions, it is necessary to take into account many factors in its arrangement, including the type and moisture of the soil, depth and thickness of the groundwater, type and size necessary pipes, the geometry of the site. Therefore, the price of drainage pipes when deciding on the arrangement of a quality system is not always fundamental to the cost of complex works.