The final stage of the construction of any building is the construction of the roof. This design refers to the important parts of the structure, which should reliably protect it from the penetration of precipitation, wind and cold. Methods of installation of individual elements of the roof primarily depend on the type of construction chosen for the house.
One of the most common design options is a gable sloping mansard roof
Different types of roofs differ their design features and forms. At arrangement of a roof cattle options of a roof are usually applied (odnoskatny, multi-rolling).
The most simple to install are sloping ones, they are distinguished by low labor intensity and high installation speed, due to too low under-roof space, it is not possible to equip a full attic (attic). This roof is installed on the building, the two walls of which have different heights. Shed roof rarely settles on residential buildings (usually in climatic zones, where strong winds prevail). Most often they are installed on garages and all sorts of outbuildings.
By the characteristics of the arrangement, multi-skid belong to the most complex types of roofs. They consist of a large number of structural elements. Installation of the roof system of such roofs should be carried out especially carefully. Pitched roofs (by their design features) are divided into:
attic, when a room is settled under the roof, where the owner can store different things or re-equip to a living room;
without a skeleton, when the supporting components of the roof perform the function of overlapping the upper floor.
With this design, there is no space left under the roof
Before building the roof , it is necessary to choose a specific type of multi-skid construction:
gable are the most common type, this roof consists of two surfaces connected at the top, the faces form two gables, the slopes can be different lengths, then gables are transformed into triangles of irregular shape, such roofs can be covered with any roofing material, are distinguished by reliability, durability and mounting height;
four-pitched are formed by four triangles (often of different shapes), connected by vertices at a common point;
hip , in which two slopes have a trapezoidal shape, and the other two - triangular, they have good resistance to wind loads, therefore they often settle in the south;
half-hardened , this subtype is formed so that the lengths of the side planes are shorter than the lengths of the main ones, usually such constructions are settled in regions with difficult climatic conditions;
lo are a type of gable, formed from four planes connecting at an obtuse angle;
Main types of truss system design
multi-plugs are distinguished by a rather complicated construction, such roofs are installed on elite-class homes that have an interesting geometric configuration;
mansard are settled when it is planned to convert the attic into residential premises, this view has a broken profile and is rather complicated in installation, Incidence is a variation mnogoschiptsovoy, gable roofs;
tent form four triangular ramp whose vertices are connected together.
Before you make the roof of the house, you should decide on the type of roofing material. From its weight depends on the load acting on the frame. This affects which rafter system will be built. It is necessary to provide features of fastening of separate elements of a roof. It is necessary to consider the use of additional structures, the use of which reinforces the rafter system.
Pitched roofs are usually covered:
sheet materials (decking, metal tile, copper, steel, aluminum folded roof), bitumen containing (Odulin);
piece materials (classical tile, slate, shingles).
Modern "soft" roof
Ceramic tile has the greatest weight. If this type of roofing is chosen, the roof system must be designed with such a significant load.
Coniferous wood should be purchased for arranging a truss system (humidity 20%, no knots, blue and other defects).Before you start installing the roof, you also need to purchase the following materials:
screws, screws, nails .
Calculation of the required material should be made according to the roof drawing, on which the truss system’s connecting nodes and reinforcing elements should be placed.
On our website you can find contacts of construction companies that offer the service of designing and repairing roofing. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
It is recommended to know the general structure of the roof of a private house, the scheme of which includes the following basic elements:
A wooden beam (square or rectangular section) is used for mounting the power plate. It serves as the basis of the whole structure and is the place of attachment of the roof to the building. Mauerlat allows you to evenly distribute the load on the walls of the building.
Mauerlat "collects" the load from the rafters and distributes it over the wall surface
The bar section is calculated based on the complexity of the roof and the weight of the frame . When installing a power plate along the entire perimeter of the building, its elements are interconnected according to the cutting principle. Additional reliability is provided by nails or bolted joint.
The rafter system is installed on the mauerlat and serves as the basis for laying the roofing pie. Be sure to include the angle of the slope of the roof. A roof with a large slope is quickly freed from water and snow. Therefore, for the arrangement of roofs with a slope from 50º, rafters of a smaller section are used than for shallower roofs. This information is necessarily reflected in the project documentation.
If the roof is erected on a structure of small width, then A-shaped structures are mounted (ridge girder is not needed). The horizontal jumper (bolt) provides the required stiffness, and also reduces the load on the spacer. Upper mount rafter legs reinforced wooden or metal lining.
The bottom of the rafters can rest against the power plate with a cut end (design without overhang). If the project provides for an overhang, a recess is made at the bottom of the rafter. The top of the cutout rests on the power plate.
The design of rafters without overhang is used very rarely.
When fitting roofs, roof rails are usually installed in which rafters are equipped with additional point of support. For this purpose, the support stands, which are connected by purlins. Additional rigidity of the structure provides struts and other elements.
After the installation of the truss system, the roofing pie is settled. First, waterproofing is laid, for which a special membrane is used. It must be fixed on the rafters. In order not to impair the ventilation of the roof, one should avoid overlapping the membrane over the ridge. Above the waterproofing to the rafters are attached bars (contrabreshetka). This ensures the required air gap.
The batten is attached to the counter-lattice. Depending on the type of roofing it is made of:
plate materials (when you need to perform a continuous crate).
A roof covering is attached to the batten. It takes all the load and redirects it to the design of the truss system.
If the roof is not “broken”, then the attic will not occupy the entire useful area of the attic
This may be interesting ! In the article on the following link read about repairing the roof of a private house.
The construction process includes the following steps:
installation of the power plate;
installation of truss systems;
construction of a roofing pie.
Before the construction of the roof, you should order the project of the roof of the house. After completion of the construction of the walls of the structure should be on top of them (under the mauerlat) lay waterproofing (roofing sheet, roofing material). When arranging a dual (sloping) roof, it is laid on two walls, on which the rafter legs rest. When a hipped roof is built, the installation of a mauerlat is performed around the entire perimeter of the building. Waterproofing also fits on all walls.
Next, the mauerlat is fastened, which is installed at the level of the inside of the walls. To evenly distribute the load, its top should protrude a few centimeters.
After that, install the floor beams. The ends of the logs should protrude to the planned width of the eaves (usually within 0. 4-0. 5 m).First, the extreme beams are laid, then the remaining beams are exposed (the step depends on the rafter step, usually - 0. 6 m). Beams are fixed on the mauerlate with nails or screws. Top stacked boards (not fixed).
The skeleton of the roof is assembled in the frame house
Further construction work includes the installation of racks, for which the 50x150 board is used. They are fixed using spacers, and their height depends on the construction of a particular roof. First, set the extreme rack, after which the rest are set. On them screws is fastened ridge bar.
When installing rafters, it is important to maintain uniform load distribution. They are fixed on the ridge, as well as below (on the ceiling). Rigel with racks are installed under them.
Arranging frame gable, sheathed board inch. Then completely mounted cornice. The ends of the overlap are closed with a frontal plank, and 2 belts of planks are attached to the bottom. Mount holders for drainage should be installed.
A waterproofing membrane is attached to the rafters. A counter-grill is made from above, and then the lathing is settled. On it the roofing material keeps within.
Roof insulation is performed from the inside with modern heat insulators. Mineral wool is often used for this. Less expensive are used more (sheet, sprayed polymeric insulation).
Thermal insulation of the roof of a house with an attic
The heat insulator is closed by a vapor barrier (special membrane). The material protects the insulation and the entire wooden structure from moisture.
Clearly and step by step the whole process of mounting the roof and roof in the following video:
Before building a roof, the following nuances should be taken into account:
it is important to correctly determine the size of the span spans, if the building has a sufficiently large width, it is necessary to choose the truss leg of maximum section;
to prevent deflection of building legs when using rafters of a small cross section, the farm must be equipped with additional support posts and other elements;
when calculating the roof, wind loads should be taken into account, for this the rafter legs must be secured with brackets;
the density of the batten depends on the type of roofing ( sparse, solid).
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about roofing decking.
A non-specialist can easily confuse a hip roof with a four-slope
Complicated version of the dual-slope roof
Broken roof for a house with an attic
A conical roof on the round part of the house
The combination of the old and the new - a gable roof on the house in the modern style
Complicated multi-tiered roof looks very impressive
Some more beautiful and practical types of roofs in the following video:
That might be interesting! In the article on the next page Lke read about the roof of the metal.
Properly made roofs are a guarantee of a warm and dry house. Therefore, it is important to strictly observe all stages of the technology of erecting the truss system and laying the roofing pie. So that there is no need to redo the whole structure over time, trust the construction to professionals.