When planning the construction of a house, one of the main issues is the choice of material. If the aesthetic requirements for the appearance of the building each have their own, then such criteria as reliability, durability and compliance with all safety standards are required for any project. Wood is a building material that perfectly combines all these requirements. To date, there are many technologies of wooden house-building (timber, rounded log, manual chopping), one of which is construction of buildings from a carriage. It is on it that we dwell in more detail.
A carnet is a type of log, treated in such a way that its two sides are oval and the other two are flat. In other words, it is a semi-tier, which has the shape of an oval. Builders call it dvukhskatny or dvuhkantnym timber.
Most often, coniferous trees are used for the production of a carpeting. Basically, it is a pine, larch or cedar. The average diameter of the log is 230 mm. After drying in special chambers to reduce the level of humidity to 18-20%, the carriage is processed on special machines.
Lafet came to us from Norway. His invention is a simple way of significant savings in the construction of wooden houses without sacrificing heat capacity and thermal insulation of the structure being built. The thing here is that the saw cut of the two sides of the log does not affect its thickness, and therefore does not affect the heat capacity of lumber. However, remains of such treatment remain, which can be successfully used for roofing or floors. The lack of the need to purchase additional materials led to the fact that the price of a log house from a carriage became much lower.
But the popularity of the gun carriage is not only due to its economy. Today, few people in Russia use saw cuts during construction - usually all residues remain at the woodworking plant. Norwegian technology for the construction of wooden buildings has another secret - a special way of coupling logs in a wooden house. Wedge-shaped bowls (cut-outs for stacking logs on each other) with special spikes and grooves allow you to create a hitch that becomes only stronger when drying, does not lead to deformation and cracks in the wooden house, does not require additional warming - this is what made Norwegian carpets popular in the whole world.
The original house from the mast.
Of course, like any other building material, carriage has its advantages and disadvantages.
Two-storey house from a gun carriage.
It is interesting that the special binding of logs in the log house can be considered both a plus (it significantly improves the insulation of the room) and a lack of construction technology. The fact is that the design of the castle, called the "Norwegian", although it is highly durable, but its production is quite difficult. Along with the processing of timber on the sawmill, manual work is needed. The design of the lock involves the presence of a large number of cut corners, which is impossible to do on the machine.
In addition, the following disadvantages of using in the construction of dvukhskatny timber can be distinguished:
Any construction process includes several stages. Not an exception and the construction of houses from the mast.
A mast of houses is under construction.
The construction of any building begins with the foundation. If during the construction the Norwegian carriage is chosen, then the device of a shallow strip foundation is recommended.
The shallow basement foundation is a single concrete strip, 20-30 cm deep into the soil, which runs along the perimeter of the building and under all the bearing walls of the house.
This concrete base is distinguished by its ease of installation and the ability to withstand heavy loads. One of the advantages of this bearing frame is the possibility of arranging a basement room. At the same time its installation is possible at various characteristics of soil.
The service life of such a structure is about 200 years. Therefore, one-story houses from the carriage often erect it on a monolithic strip foundation.
The first step in assembling wall partitions is to prepare the material . The carriage is subjected to antiseptic processing and cutting of grooves and bowls. Making the markup using the hydraulic level, prepare the grooves using an ax, adze and chainsaw. In this case, the bowl should correspond to the cross section of the lower transverse crowned element (log, located at the bottom). Be sure to fit and label each of the logs.
The next step is drilling of holes for dowels . Holes must be staggered.
Nagel is a special wooden (sometimes iron nail) used to grip logs, the main purpose of which is to strengthen the frame and protect it from deformation during shrinkage.
Primary assembly is performed without the use of pins, which are fastened only after a careful check of the correctness of the installation of the structure.
Cutting out window and door openings should be carried out in the course of designing the walls. Mandatory installation end boards. For additional protection of the geometry of the house in the vertical elements of the building use compensators.
Compensators are special devices (screws or springs) that are laid between the vertical and horizontal elements of the wooden structure. They are designed to compensate for the negative effects of shrinkage, such as deformation and cracking of logs.
A small house from a gun carriage.
Considering that the carriage is very durable, stable and able to withstand heavy loads, the roof of the building can be made of any material. Both light systems, such as roofing felt, ondulin, metal or slate, and heavier ones, such as clay tiles, will be equally suitable. The choice is up to the customer.
The main thing, when constructing the roof, is to follow the assembly sequence, which includes the following steps:
The original interior of the house.
Wooden houses from a carriage are good because, in principle, do not need interior or exterior finish . However, if you want to experiment with the interior, you need to take into account that you can begin interior decoration of a house made of a carriage, not earlier than six months later, when the building will naturally shrink.
Before beginning the finishing work, the walls must be propelled. This process will avoid further changes in the geometry of the building.
Most often, cladding, plasterboard or wall panels are used for wall cladding. The principle of fastening of such material assumes the presence of crates, which is performed from a bar or log. The space between the wall and the crate can be used as a niche for laying communications. At the same time, it is necessary to fulfill fire safety requirements.
However, not everyone likes this way of finishing: firstly, it takes up the useful area of the room, and secondly, insects and rodents often organize their homes in such niches.
In this case, the wall is best left in its original form. They can be painted or varnished.
A house from the mast.
The use of plaster solutions is excluded, because wood has the ability to "breathe" (either absorb moisture, then dry) throughout the entire life of the building. Putty will not withstand such a load.
In general, the interiors of laft houses are quite diverse. It can be colorful Moroccan style or discreet elegant English, it looks great and romantic Provence. Furniture and interior elements will help to achieve design ideas.
The cost of building a house according to Norwegian technology depends on the area of the future structure, type of wood, thickness of the log. Also, the price is significantly influenced by such a criterion as the natural humidity and chamber drying of the napkin.
The cost of 1 m 3 of lumber of natural moisture is about 22 thousand rubles, chamber drying of a carriage will add to this price another three thousand rubles. Works on the arrangement of the tape foundation, taking into account the materials, will cost about 12 thousand rubles per 1 m 3 , and roofing works will cost an average of 4 thousand rubles per 1 m 2 .
Every year, eco-friendly housing is becoming increasingly valuable. If, moreover, the carriage house is built according to modern technologies, equipped with all the necessary communications and meets the parameters of reliability and durability, what could be better? A house from the mast, perhaps one of these options.