which is better to choose, species, installation

If you try to decide which septic tank is best for giving with non-permanent residence, then you will quickly understand that you cannot find a definite answer here. Family budget, "performance", geological features of the site - this is an incomplete list of selection criteria, so in each case the best solution will be something different. But in any case, the nature of seasonal residence itself imposes on the choice of design some limitations of a fundamental nature.

which is better to choose, species, installation

There are universal solutions, but they have certain limitations

Classification of septic tanks

According to the principle of the septic tank There are the following types:

  1. Cumulative. If you take a strict approach, this is not a septic tank, but simply a tank for collecting wastewater, the prototype of which is a cesspool. Previously, the tightness of the walls and bottom of such an underground tank did not impose special requirements. Now this is a prerequisite, failure to comply with which is pursued as damage to the land. Therefore, instead of a "pit", they bury the finished tank in the ground or make it of reinforced concrete (precast or monolithic).

  2. Anaerobic. This is a classic example of an underground local cleaning station, where the drains in the process of overflow from chamber to chamber are separated and processed by bacteria without oxygen. The degree of purification reaches 60-70%, and clarified effluents undergo additional purification by aerobic bacteria in filtration fields, trenches or wells.

  3. Aerobic. The design is constructed so that inside the septic tank a full cycle of sewage treatment with aerobic bacteria to the level of 95-98% occurs. This is a volatile species, since the forced flow of air is necessary for the vital activity of microorganisms.

which is better to choose, species, installation

Comparison of the characteristics of the aerobic septic tank BARS-Aero and TOPAS

The advantages and disadvantages of septic tanks in the cottage conditions

Each species has its own set of advantages:

  1. Accumulative septic tank for summer living and now one of the most popular options. The advantages include: low price, simple device, the ability to accept all types of waste, regardless of their "acid-base" balance. It is not affected by the standards for the minimum distance from water sources, a dwelling house and the boundaries of the site - the drains between the pumping are inside a sealed container.

    The only drawback is the need for frequent call of the assenizator machine, the periods between the arrival of which depend on the volume of the septic tank and the intensity of operation. The load on it can be reduced, the duration of work without pumping increase, if the sewage is divided into gray and black, and the drainage of water from the shower, bath and washbasin to bring in your filter or drainage well.

which is better to choose, species, installation

Drains from the accumulative septic tank without electricity have to periodically pump out
  1. Anaerobic septic tank consists of two or three chambers connected in one case or spaced apart on independent capacities. Proper selection of the volume of the chambers and their ratio among themselves regulate the productivity and the degree of sewage treatment to a “clarified” state, which allows them to be diverted to soil cleaning and filtering devices.

    Anaerobic septic tanks are non-volatile. All the liquid part of the effluent is eventually discharged into the ground. They clean the tanks only from the solid fractions, which are deposited on the bottom of the sealed chambers in the process of separation and processing by bacteria. The frequency of pumping can be from several months to several years - depending on the amount of wastewater, the number of residents and visitors, the length of stay. It is the best option of a septic tank for giving non-permanent residence without electricity (even when it is available). But provided that the size of the site and its plan allow for installation without violating the requirements of regulations.

    The main drawback is the rather strict requirements for location relative to water intake, reservoirs, residential building and the boundaries of the site. In addition, when arranging filter fields and wells there are restrictions on the type of soil and the depth of groundwater.

which is better to choose, species, installation

In some cases, the pump
is used to remove treated wastewater. On our site you can find building contacts companies that offer the service of design and installation of sewage and water supply. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
  1. Aerobic septic tank, despite the almost complete cleaning of drains, is rarely used to give non-permanent residence. To create conditions for the life of microflora that process wastewater, a constant flow of air is required, which is ensured by the operation of the compressor.

    When the electricity is turned off, aerobic bacteria die, and to start a septic tank, you need to do quite a lot of work on preparing the system.

    Another reason against interruptions in the functioning of an aerobic septic tank (even under the condition of a running compressor) is the death of bacteria in the absence of "fresh" effluent containing organic matter, which for them serves as a food medium. But this is not the main drawback. As the manufacturer of septic tanks "Tapas" writes, in order to reach the design level of cleaning after the launch, it takes 2-3 weeks. That is, if they live in the summer in the country, then it should be launched in the spring and disconnected in the autumn.

    For the same reason, such a septic tank is not suitable for working in the winter with non-permanent residence at a dacha, when people only come here on weekends.

which is better to choose, species, installation

For the vital activity of bacteria that live in an aerobic septic tank, a constant flow of effluent is necessary - with long interruptions in the work, the colony of bacteria will have to be repopulated again
  1. Combined septic tanks. The design of this type provides at least two sealed chambers (in practice - at least three). In the first chamber, fractions are separated and clarified by anaerobic bacteria, in the second - by aerobic bacteria.

    The advantage of this configuration before the previous version is considered to be higher productivity and less stress on the biological phase of cleaning with aerobic microorganisms. But these are volatile models that have the same drawbacks as septic tanks for giving non-permanent residence.

It might be interesting! In the article on the following link read about a septic tank made of reinforced concrete rings.

Septic tank materials

In both types of septic tank, there is a container with a sealed bottom and walls for giving non-permanent residence.

Septic tanks from polymers

If you choose among ready-made models, septic tanks are made of durable polymers that are not susceptible to corrosion and are able to withstand prolonged exposure to aggressive environments. These include low pressure polyethylene, polypropylene and fiberglass.

All factory tanks are designed for a certain pressure both from the inside when filling with drains, and from the outside as a result of soil pressure - the wall thickness and a set of stiffeners guarantee the constancy of the shape.

which is better to choose, species, installation

Most often, factory septic tanks are made on the basis of plastic containers

Each type of polymer has its drawbacks, but they are not of fundamental nature . The main common feature is the low weight of the tank. Even being full, the specific gravity of the septic tank, taking into account the solid fractions of the effluent, does not exceed 1100 kg / m 3 , and even the bulk density of the soil is at least 1500 kg / m 3 , not to mention compacted condition in its natural form. Therefore, the heaving force will tend to push the septic tank up, especially if it is empty. When installing a plastic septic tank, it must be fixed to a solid base in the form of a concrete slab. And on strongly crumbled soils, it is recommended to make a backfill of the pit with excavated soil mixed with sand.

Note! In any case, during a long interruption the capacity should not remain empty. The standard recommendation for the period of absence is fullness by 3/4 volume, so that the walls hold the pressure of the soil better, and the colony of anaerobic bacteria does not die out completely.

For biological sewage treatment plants, in order to provide non-permanent residence, there is a preservation process for the winter period. All is clearly shown in the video:

Metal septic tanks

Polymer septic tanks have pressed metal containers, but they still occur. Among the offers on the market of metal septic tanks there are three types of containers:

  • factory products with fixed characteristics;

  • custom manufacturing of individual sizes;

  • sale of used steel tanks and tanks for technical liquids, which are modified under the cumulative septic tank.

Unlike polymeric ones, such containers have a large margin of safety: the minimum thickness of the metal is 4 mm, and for tanks of large volume - 8-12 mm. But the service life of metal summer septic tanks, even under the condition of anti-corrosion treatment, is lower than that of plastic ones.

It may be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the septic tank for the house.

Reinforced concrete rings

One of the most popular materials for a sewage system for giving non-permanent residence is reinforced concrete rings of the KS series. They are of different diameters and heights that allow you to make the design of the optimal volume.

Advantages - high strength and stability in the soil.Concrete has a tendency to get wet with prolonged contact with a moist environment, but this disadvantage is compensated for by waterproofing the surface.

which is better to choose, species, installation

High-quality waterproofing - the key to long-term operation of a septic tank from reinforced concrete rings

Installing a septic tank is a little more complicated than installing a finished container. In fact, it is a precast concrete structure of several tanks, each of which consists of several rings (including a filtering well without a bottom with perforated walls). But in every region there are construction organizations specializing in such a turnkey service.

The choice of the volume of the septic tank

With the volume of the cumulative septic tank, everything is extremely clear - the more, the less often you have to call the car to clean it. And if you divide the drains into black and gray, then the average volume of the reservoir is enough to give a “weekend” for the whole season.

which is better to choose, species, installation

An example of the separation of wastewater into "black" and "gray"

The shape and dimensions of the cumulative septic tank are dictated not only by the necessary capacity, but depend on the free space on the site, which would ensure the free access of the machine to the technological hatch. The standard location is somewhere in the middle between the dacha wall on the side of the bathroom and the border of the plot adjacent to the road. With the depth of the location of the tank, there is usually no problem - the power of the vacuum pump of the ashenization machine guarantees pumping of sewage from a depth of 4 m. 3 (so many days are spent on the cycle of disinfection of waste bacteria). Sometimes 20-25% is added to the salvo on arrival of guests. This total volume is distributed between the cameras. For a two-chamber septic tank (excluding the filtering well), at least 2/3 is given to the first tank, for a three-chamber - at least 1/2.

See the following video for the pros and cons of septic tanks and biostation stations:

This might be interesting! In the article next link read about a septic tank without pumping.


No matter how simple the septic tank seems to be for giving non-permanent residence, it should be installed by professionals. Especially if it is an anaerobic septic tank. And the complexity is not even in the installation itself, but in the choice of methods for soil sewage treatment. Specialists will fully take into account the geological features of the site and the filtering ability of the soil.

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