Problems with tap water in suburban settlements are often solved in the old manner - by digging wells. The article will understand what is a well in the country, where it is better to dig it, in what ways, how to decorate this hydraulic structure, and how to organize an autonomous water supply from it.
A well is a mine that reaches the water horizon with water suitable for consumption. From the depth at which the water layer lies, specialists divide these hydraulic structures into two types:
Key or surface . This is when there is a key on a country plot, from which purest drinking water is beating. Convenient option, low-cost.
Mine . This is when up to the water layer it is necessary to dig out the soil, constructing a mine of a round or square section. The depth of the structure can reach 10 m.
There is such a term - the Abyssinian well. In the form in which we are all accustomed to seeing wells, this structure is not such. This is a well formed by a steel pipe that is driven into the ground. To raise the water, either an electric pump or a hand rocking chair is required. Depth of well formation is up to 30 m.
There are three types that determine the operational supply of water inside a hydraulic structure and the method of its supply to the barrel.
Imperfect type wells . Construct this variety so that the mine does not rest on a solid rock. That is, the walls are formed in such a way that the structure’s trunk sinks into the aquifer by about 70%. That is, the water intake into the well is made through the walls of the structure, and through the bottom.
Perfect type . This is when the shaft of the mine rests on a solid rock. In this case, water enters the well only through the walls.
Perfect view with sump . The latter is a water collector, which is laid in the bottom strong layer. And the water enters the structure through the walls of the mine.
The main requirement for the arrangement of the well in the country - that this hydraulic structure provided water to the residents of a country house in full. This applies not only to drinking, but also taking a shower, watering the garden and kitchen garden, washing dishes, doing laundry, cleaning the house, using the toilet bowl. On average, one person per day takes up to 200 liters of water. That is, this is an indicator that must be considered when constructing a well. If in the construction area of the dacha this indicator is not the required value, then it is worth thinking about the construction of the well.
Therefore, the first step is to conduct hydrotechnical surveys. That is, it is necessary to make a small diameter well and determine: at what depth is the aquifer, what is its volume, is there enough water in it? Let's face it, this service is worth a lot of money. Provide its specialized companies that have a license to conduct this type of work. But no one will give you more accurate information besides them.
Of course, there is an option to ask a neighbor if there is already a well in his summer cottage. That is, the depth of its well can be a guide for yours. But this is only possible if a well is already being used at a neighboring site, and these parameters are not always suitable for your site.
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Now about the question of where to put a well in the country. There are strict sanitary standards for the construction of water wells and wells, where the distances from the hydraulic structure to the facilities at the summer cottage are clearly defined. Two parameters are important for a well:
The distance from the foundation of the main house and outbuildings to the well must not be less than 5 m . This is due to the fact that the aquifer gradually washes away the soil at the bottom. And if the distance to the foundation of the building is not the normative, then this may affect its integrity.
Sanitary area - 25-50 m . This means that at this distance from the well shaft it is impossible to arrange facilities related to the sewage system. That is, you cannot build toilets, cesspools and compost pits, septic tanks, filtration fields, and so on. This also applies to landfills and gutters.
And a few words about the safety of the construction of wells.It is clear that companies offering well construction services inform their employees about what can and cannot be done by constructing a well shaft. We will simply designate some basic requirements:
to be careful when digging, because under a large layer of earth you can stumble upon a gas pocket;
ensure that the walls of the structure do not crumble ;
strictly follow the technology of construction;
it is desirable to use modern methods and methods.
And the last time to start building a well for the dacha. Optimally - in the driest time. And this is the middle of summer and autumn.
Well - the facilities seem to be insignificant, but according to the law, every owner must register it. Do not forget to do this after construction.
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To begin with, the well shaft must have solid walls. And if in the old days they were lined with logs, then today the best option is reinforced concrete rings, which are installed on each other, sealing the joints.
There are two main ways to form a shaft: manual and mechanized. Let's start with the manual.
The technology itself is simple - with a shovel, strictly by marking, they dig a well. But here the type of soil at the dacha can interfere with the technology. It can be clay or sandy.
In the first case, the mine is simply dug to the depth where the aquifer passes. Then reinforced concrete rings are lowered into it with the help of a crane.
The second method is very different from the first. And the thing is that on the sandy soil is difficult to keep the vertical plane. The sand is loose and soft, so the walls of the mine will simply crumble, and the diameter of the structure will expand. Therefore, there is a specific algorithm for this type of work.
Make markup at the construction site of the well.
They dig a hole to the depth of half a meter with a spade on the marking.
Install the first reinforced concrete ring with the crane .
A digger climbs inside and starts picking up the primer. To dig it easier, the bottom of the pit is often filled with water.
The earth can be selected according to two schemes. The first is to first remove the area in the middle of the pit, and then gradually under the walls of the ring, thereby placing it in the ground. Or vice versa: first clean the ground under the walls of the ring, and then choose the middle.
As soon as the first reinforced concrete ring is lowered so that its part protrudes from the ground to a height of 10-15 cm, the second concrete ring is placed on top. And the process is repeated. In this way, dig a well, forming a trunk.
The penetration is carried out to the depth, when three keys start beating from the ground. That is, the process brought to the aquifer. It is impossible to dig deeper, because the bottom is weak, and this can lead to the fact that the lower concrete ring simply sinks. Often it was tilted, after which the well was just covered with soil, and you had to dig a new one.
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To do this, use a special tool called yamobur. Install it on the car, by the way, the latter is usually brought and reinforced concrete rings. The same tool conducts geological surveys.
That is, at the selected location, first a well is drilled with a diameter of 100-300 mm. Determine the depth of the water, and then change the screw on a special drill, the diameter of which is slightly larger than the outer diameter of the concrete ring. Buryat mine, where the same device set rings.
Watch the video where it is shown how simply to make a well on a country site:
To the water in the well construction has always been clean, it is necessary to form a so-called bottom filter at the bottom. To do this, rubble or coarse gravel (40 mm) with a layer thickness of 15–20 cm is covered to the bottom, and crushed stone of the middle fraction (10–20 mm) with a layer of 20–40 cm. First, lay a wooden platform on the bottom of the boards with a thickness of 30-50 mm. And already on it to form the bottom filter. This will provide a more free passage of water, since there will be free space between the wooden platform and the bottom of the well.
The last top reinforced concrete ring installed on the shaft should not go too deep. Its walls should stick out above the soil surface within 70 cm. It must be equipped with a cover or other structure. For example, a house is most often constructed so that precipitation falls on the shaft of a mine.
As for decorating the head, there is a huge variety of options. For example, the photo below shows a very unusual design that will decorate the dacha.
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So, the summer well is ready. But do not carry the same buckets of water into the house. If there is enough water in it, then you can organize a small water supply network with the plant directly into the house. To do this, you need to choose an electric pump and a plastic pipe.
As for the pump, either the immersion version or the surface one is suitable. The second is better because he is always in sight. And if it is necessary to carry out its repair or routine inspection, then there is no need to pull it out of the mine, as a submersible option.
The pump itself is selected by power (capacity - m³ / h or l / s) and head. The first characteristic is selected taking into account the required amount of water, which is used at the cottage. For example, the productivity of a standard kitchen sink is 0.1 l / s, the toilet bowl is 0.3 l / s, and the valve for watering the kitchen garden is 0.3 l / s.
That is, it is necessary to calculate the number of sanitary appliances used in the suburban area, determine the performance of each and add up these indicators. This will be the total pump capacity. As for the pressure, it is determined by the depth of the aquifer, that is, the depth of the well.
If a submersible pump is selected, it is installed directly into the well shaft, dipping into water. It is suspended on a steel cable. From the device inside the house conduct plastic flexible pipe. If a surface pump is mounted, it is installed near the well: either near the tip, or inside the shaft on a special metal stand, or inside the house in a heated room. From it a pipe is lowered into the well, at the end of which a strainer is installed. And from the device inside the house is also a pipe.
If the dacha is operated only in the warm season, the pump is dismantled in the autumn, the hoses are twisted into a coil. And all this is stored in a dry place. In the spring, the equipment is reinstalled.
The video shows how you can easily organize the water supply for a country house from a well:
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The construction of a well at the dacha is a difficult, serious and responsible process. We can not ignore the rules and regulations of the location of this hydraulic structure. It is important to conduct construction correctly, where the yamobur variant is the fastest, easiest and safest.