Frame houses have long and firmly seized a significant part of the private housing market in developed countries (up to 80% in America, up to 60% in Northern Europe and up to 45% in Japan). Among Russian developers, the idea of leaving the bustling city and settling in the lap of nature, without spending an astronomical sum and a couple of years of life for a magical movement, looks more and more attractive. Looking back on the long-term experience of foreign homeowners, they come to the conclusion that building only from classical materials is an outdated strategy based on traditional notions of quality.
For centuries, the best houses were considered stone and wooden buildings, good and almost eternal ; if you think there were no alternatives, other materials were not suitable for them. But the development of scientific knowledge has made our lives more multifaceted. In the past 50 years, new technologies have appeared in construction, based on new materials and breaking stereotypes about a warm house. Among them - the technology of frame-panel houses, reliable, efficient and economical.
According to the statistics of the UK Timber Frame Association, over the past 10 years, at least 70% of the population of Western European countries have chosen a frame technology in order to build their house. Professional builders distinguish several directions in frame housing construction:
Half-timbered (frame-frame technology). The oldest of all, but not lost popularity. A massive timber assembled in the form of sections with inclined beams is used as a frame. Chip wall structures - the space between the beams is filled with a suitable material, and the beams are visible from the outside of the wall.
Panel house . An inexpensive kind of frame technology. Such buildings are designed for seasonal use; in the summer they are comfortable, but in winter they will have to spend money on heating. The frame construction is assembled from boards and sheathed with plywood (often clapboard). Then it is the turn of laying the insulation (it is separated from the walls by waterproofing), at the end the second surface is sewn up.
Frame house . The basis of the building is a frame of beams and ceilings; It can be made of wood or metal. When the frame is ready, external and internal panels (OSB or DSP) are attached to it. Insulated insulation is laid between the panels, the lining is made with any finishing material. For the sheathing, not only OSB-plates can be used, but also other options: wind-shelter panels or the most well-known type - CIP-panels.
SIP technology . When talking about frame constructions, they most often talk about the construction of a residential building using CIP panels (another name is Canadian technology, which is not entirely accurate, since the panels were invented in the USA). The frame is sheathed with finished insulated panels (three-layer structure of factory production: insulation between the two plates).
Frame-panel housing construction . The frame, as in the previous versions, is absent; factory-made wall panels assume its role.
The idea to make walls in advance, in factory conditions, and only to put them together on a building site, was undoubtedly progressive. High readiness panels are assembled in the workshop, under the roof, so that their quality does not suffer. They are supplied not only with insulation, but also with facade and interior decoration, and often doors and double-glazed windows are installed in them. In Europe and America, about 20% of private frame dwellings are built using frame-panel technology; It has its own characteristics in different regions and is divided into several varieties.
It is rather a partly panel technology, since only 15% of the elements of the house are manufactured industrially. The remaining 85% are collected at the construction site. The finished elements are wooden or metal frame, one side of which is sheathed by an OSP-plate with a layer of insulation. The builders assemble the frame, lay insulation, and then sew up the outer side.
If, according to Canadian technology, wall blanks are used for construction, then Scandinavian - external walls assembled entirely in the workshop: The frame is sheathed by OSB-plates from two sides, heat insulation material is placed between the plates .Also in the factory installed double-glazed windows and doors. The workers need only to assemble the outer panels together and sheathe them. Internal walls are assembled in the usual way (directly at the construction site).
On our site you can familiarize yourself with the most popular projects. houses on panel-frame technology from construction companies represented at the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
The most technological production with minimal use of manual labor is known to us as German technology. All elements are assembled on an automated line, which, together with the control of each stage, ensures a high quality house set. In factory conditions not only panels of external walls and partitions are made, but also elements of floors and roofs. The panel includes:
Base - wooden frame made of beams. For its plating using a variety of plate materials: moisture-resistant OSB-and DSP-plates, drywall and fibreboard. The design involves the installation of corrugated pipes for wiring, podozetnikov, drilling holes for ventilation and sewage; sometimes (on request) windows and doors are installed.
Thermal insulation . Used mineral wool, basalt or ecowool, polystyrene foam and other insulation.
Protection . Paro-and moisture-proof films provide moisture resistance design.
Fasteners . Metal fasteners are used, thanks to which the panels are connected with high precision and reliability.
Finishing . For exterior cladding, lining, siding, ceramic plates and a blockhouse are used. When finishing with decorative plaster, the panels are pre-lined with cork or fiber boards.
A domokomplekt is delivered to the construction site, which includes:
wall structures with tightly fitting components;
truss system (or truss trusses).
Lifting equipment is used to deliver the housing set and install the house. The elements are mounted in a single structure on a previously prepared foundation, then it is the turn of roofing, interior and exterior (if necessary), and laying of utilities.