The presence of a wastewater collection system is one of the most important conditions for the comfort of living in a country cottage or in a country house. Designing and assembling sewer lines usually do not cause great difficulties, but the construction of a septic tank in a private house, a key task in creating a local sewage system, involves linking solutions to several problems. Moreover, solutions are sometimes mutually exclusive!
A modern septic tank is a rather complicated installation, easy to maintain and durable in operation. However, these features are preserved only in the case of correct installation and connection of installed cleaning equipment.
Most simple and primitive septic tank - a two-chamber cesspool, the primary chamber of which must be periodically cleaned. Its disadvantages are well known - it is not the most pleasant smell and practically untreated sewage entering the soil. Plus - the relative difficulty in the technical implementation.
It is with the cesspool that great difficulties arise when choosing its location - after all, from the point of view of financial costs and efforts, it is most convenient to place the pit as close to the structure as possible. But the presence of such a large amount of contaminants in such a settling tank (practically not a sealed container), most likely falling directly into the ground, dictates the need to move the septic tank as far as possible.
The most acceptable way to include wastewater in the local ecosystem - establish a septic tank of industrial manufacture. Such equipment, due to the peculiarities of its design, is distinguished by an almost ideal operational performance :
easy installation ;
durability of the casing made of polymeric materials;
high degree of purification of polluted water;
full processing of mud masses;
If it is not possible to use special equipment, then, if necessary, modern septic tanks can be installed manually, but without knowledge of the technology it is still possible to
On our website you can find contacts of construction companies that offer the service of designing and installing sewage and water supply. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
The choice of a place to install a septic tank, even if it is completely airtight, is determined not only and not so much by the convenience of construction work and maintenance. Defining here are sanitary-epidemiological standards and rules - for example, displayed in SNiP 2. 04. 03-85. According to these rules, the location of the septic tank must meet the following conditions:
the distance to the nearest source of drinking water (well, well) must not be less than 30 m;
to a stream, river or other natural reservoir should be more than 10 m;
; to the external walls of a residential house, the distance should not be less than 4 m;
the border of the site should not be closer than 3 m;
to the nearest public road should not be less than 5 m.
In addition, a septic tank in a private house should not be located close Trees - minimum distance 2 m.
Should to take into account not only these mandatory norms (in violation of which considerable sanctions are possible from the supervisory authorities!), but also to take into account local conditions. These include both the characteristics of the ground (the depth of groundwater and soil freezing, the relief of the site), and the presence or possibility of supplying related utilities — some types of factory-made septic tanks are energy-dependent and need three-phase electrical power.
The design and dimensions of the treatment plant are not standardized, however, when choosing the location of the cleaning stations, it should be borne in mind that the main drain pipe should fit the septic tank with a slope of at least 2 degrees. In other words - take into account the magnitude of the required depth of the pit and the technical possibility of its observance.
The main technical characteristic of any septic tank is its performance, which characterizes the volume of effluents received and processed over a certain period of time; usually - per day. It depends first of all on the volume of the settling chamber, secondly - on the technology of purifying polluted water used in the clearing unit.
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the concrete septic tank.
A special feature of septic tanks is that high-quality sewage treatment cannot last less than three days; accordingly, the volume of the chambers should be sufficient to contain a three-day discharge of sewage. That is why it is advisable to choose the volume of the sewage treatment plant with a margin - but with a margin reasonable, since there is another rule: for efficient operation, the septic tank must be at least one-third filled. ..
According to the existing standards, about 200 liters of wastewater (0.2 cubic meters) per day is produced by one person - this is a fairly average figure, but it is quite acceptable as a baseline for calculating the performance of a septic tank. It should only be borne in mind that if you like to soak in the bath every day (one-time discharge of water from which may exceed 300 liters) - this calculated rate must be increased at least twice.
Thus, for a family of three people the required volume of septic tank can vary from 1.8 to 3.6 cubic meters. m. Taking into account the stock - from 2 to 4 cubic meters. Moreover, the number of chambers in the treatment plant does not matter - the volume of the first one, the receiving one (the “settling tank”) is important.
Having defined the volume of the settling tank, to think over and make a scheme of a sewage treatment plant, in which all local features should be taken into account. Since it is correct to install a septic tank - it means that to ensure its durable operation without an extra headache, it is necessary to calculate all possible options.
The simplest version of the treatment system includes the following main elements:
pipeline connecting the outlet of the domestic sewage system to the septic tank;
reception (septic) chamber;
piping from the chamber to the installation of soil purification (if its device is planned);
aeration fields for final wastewater treatment and their transfer to the ground.
The main part of the septic tank is a chamber for drains that can be made of a variety of materials:
The most common material for pipelines is polypropylene pipe of suitable diameter. It is inexpensive, light in weight, has a very high strength and is easily processed. If desired, asbestos-cement, cast iron or other metal pipes can be used - but their service life is significantly less than that of polypropylene pipes, and the cost is much higher.
A septic chamber is usually made of plastic or reinforced concrete, in simple cases a brick can be used. Using a suitable volume of iron barrels as a tank is a bad idea: they not only quickly rot, but pollute the soil during their rusting. Ideal - industrial manufacturing septic tanks, simple to install and reliable in operation.
It might be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the septic tank for the toilet.
A common version of septic tanks is made of reinforced concrete rings. Their cost is quite high; In addition, for the delivery and installation of such rings, due to their considerable weight, special equipment is needed. However, for high volume chambers, the use of concrete products can be quite justified.
The most laborious and expensive version of a septic chamber - monolithic construction, when a formwork for filling the walls and the bottom with concrete is assembled in a prepared trench. Due to its high cost and the need for high physical costs, this method is justified only with very large volumes of wastewater, for a private residence it is almost unreal.
In any case, materials used in the construction of a sewage treatment plant must be sustainable to aggressive environments. Polymers ideally meet this requirement, but they have one drawback: they are very light. .. the low weight of the chamber, of course, facilitates its installation, but at the same time it greatly increases the probability of its ascent, especially when the groundwater level is low. Therefore, in conjunction with such containers, it is necessary to apply the "anchors" of any available type.
Since installing a septic tank in a private house does not always mean that the most purified water will go to the soil, in some cases filtration (aeration) fields are included in the cleaning system. Of course, they take up quite a lot of space, but they allow for the most efficient disposal of wastewater.
The installation of a septic tank always begins with digging out the trench of the required size. When installing ready-made factory-made "tanks," it is imperative to provide a concrete pad to which a septic tank will have to be fixed so that it will not be pushed out by the heaving forces.
In addition to the pit for the septic tank it is necessary to dig trenches for supplying sewage pipes and draining treated wastewater. If the septic tank will be operated all year round, the pipes should be kept below the level of soil freezing.
The septic tank is connected to the sewer.
Completion of excavation works: the gap between the walls of the pit and the outer side of the walls of the box is filled with any available material; usually - taken out while digging the foundation pit.
How the septic tank installation works are done, see the video:
It might be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the septic tank for the garden .
Today, the local sewage system is an indispensable element of a country cottage or cottage, and if necessary it can be installed independently. But, given the large number of factors that need to be taken into account when designing it, it is better to turn to a specialist for drawing up a specific scheme of treatment facilities.