Today in the article we will talk about decorative stone for exterior decoration of the house. About his classification, about how the stones differ from each other, what is their structure and operational characteristics. Be sure to dwell on some of the nuances of the lining process. And also distribute the advantages and disadvantages of the properties and quality of the finishing material.
Stone cladding of buildings came to our modernity from far times. This type of decoration was used both by the ancient Greeks and the peoples of the East, and even in Africa, during excavations, houses were lined with stone tiles. Today this type of facade design is also very popular. It's all about the characteristics of the stone itself.
First of all, it is the highest strength of the material. Secondly, it is an amazingly beautiful appearance, under which you can hide even an old building, turning it into an attractive building. Plus, excellent waterproofing characteristics of stone tiles, which is very important for the facades. Do not overlook the long-term operation of the finish, which faithfully serve for more than a dozen years.
As regards classification, there are only two categories: natural stone and artificial. They differ from each other in structure strikingly, respectively, a big difference in price. At one time, artificial stone for exterior home decoration was invented as a cheap alternative to natural. But as for the beauty of appearance, as well as performance, there is no difference.
Probably, it should be noted that natural The stone is first of all a natural unique pattern. But it should be noted that among the huge variety of types, types and subspecies of stone rocks, not all are used in construction. Let's list the main stones that are used for facade cladding.
The hardest of those offered by today's market is granite and marble. Accordingly, they are the most expensive. Today it is rare to find private houses in which the facade plane is decorated with these stone tiles. Most often they are used for cladding plots or house elements. For example, they decorate door and window openings, the basement plinth or individual architectural elements of the facade of the building.
Travertine has a porous structure that absorbs moisture well. Therefore, they try to cover such lining with protective structures and curtain eaves. By its texture, the material is similar to the bark of an old tree.
In the natural category, shell rock and sandstone are the cheapest. The tiles cut from these stones are very durable, they tolerate natural loads well. At the same time, these stones respond well to processing. Accordingly, the price they have the lowest. It is these two rocks that are most often used today as a stone cladding of facades.
I would like to draw your attention to the Lemezite. In fact, it is limestone, only marbled type. In another way it is called flagstone. It is surprising that there are always algae in the body of the stone, which fell into it many millions of years ago. And therefore, how to cut a stone: along or across, respectively, and the pattern of algae will be different.
Lemesite has high strength, low abrasion, increased moisture resistance and frost resistance. Plitnyak is used not only for finishing facades. Garden paths are made of it, fireplaces are revetted and so on.
Of course, the list goes on. But it should be noted that it is these rocks that are very popular today. We add that natural stone is an expensive material. And the price of the material depends on the difficult and expensive method of its extraction, regardless of the breed.
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The term “artificial” means that this material was created by man. There are various manufacturing techniques of artificial stones in which different building materials are used. But there is a certain classification in which the binding component of the used solution is taken as the basis.Therefore, here are the most popular stone types of cladding in the category of "artificial".
On a concrete base . In essence, this is cement-sand mortar , in which pigments and stone chips are added. Pour the finished mixture into a form that is made to create the structure of a stone. These are heavy products, by weight practically not different from natural stone.
Another group on a concrete basis , to which polyester resins are added, besides the above-mentioned components. By the way, this material is called polymer concrete and is produced only under strict technical conditions under the number TU 4940-001-00284581-2002. Usually artificial marble or granite are made of such a solution. They are poured in the form of tiles of different sizes. It turns out durable material that completely simulates a natural stone, with a polished surface. The photo shows how a variety of decorations can be obtained using the technology of production of artificial stones.
Stoneware . In some ways, it is a ceramic tile, that is, a material made from clay using the firing method at high temperatures. The tiles are simply molded under high pressure, hence the high density of the finished material, and, accordingly, the strength, which is almost the same as stone. At the same time, exterior decorative porcelain stoneware data is the exact repetition of a large number of stone . But it should be noted that this facing material is glossy , that is, no one hundred percent repetition of naturalness.
Clinker tile . This is also clay material that has undergone the firing process . It is not as durable as porcelain , but according to external decorative data it is very similar to stone. That is almost the same texture.
Agglomerates . These materials received their name only because all the components in it are joined by interspersed , creating a durable final material. In this case, this is sand , dyes , stone crumb and a small amount of polymers . For strength and naturalness, this material is closest to the stone . The fact is that in a mixture of a large number of natural ingredients and very few polymers, which in this solution serve as a binder. Production method - vibropressing . At the same time, it is necessary to designate that what kind of stone crumb is added to the composition of an artificial stone, it will imitate such a rock.
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The most important advantage of an artificial decorative stone is the price, which is several times lower than that of a natural lining. In principle, therefore, an artificial variety was invented twenty years ago.
The second advantage is the manufacturability of the material. That is, the technology of its laying on the walls of buildings and structures is easier than finishing with natural stone. Hence, low prices, which take the master when carrying out facing works.
Third - an artificial decorative stone is easily processed. In addition, manufacturers offer completely unique forms of this material that do not need to be customized. For example, tiles can be with rounded corners, with rounded chamfers. And generally have a completely non-rectangular shape.
Manufacturers today offer trim elements for window and door openings, the corners of buildings that cover adjacent planes with them. Today it is very important. That is, such elements make it easier to close the corners, that is, to make them without joints, as is usually the case when using natural cladding.
It may be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the artificial stone for the facade of the house - types and features
The artificial stone weighs 1.5 times less than the natural one. And this is an opportunity to reduce the cost of strengthening the foundation.It can be added that the reverse (rear) side of the artificial material is made with roughness, with risks that help increase the adhesion of the material to the facade wall of the building.
Today in the model lineup of all manufacturers there are so-called thin-walled facing stones. It is very simple to work with them, laying, basically, as a tile. There is another wall cladding technology called frame. That is, the first sheathing of metal profiles is mounted on the wall, and the tiles themselves are attached to it in various ways.
As for the shortcomings, it is still quite a high price. Compared with other types of facade decoration, lining with artificial stone will cost a lot of money. Here you can add the complexity of the technology of laying tile material, regardless of whether it is installed using a wet method (using an adhesive solution) or dry (frame). In any case, this should be done by professionals.
In the video, the specialist talks about the advantages of the artificial stone, its characteristics and features:
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If the stone facing carried out by wet technology, it is necessary to pay attention to one very serious point. This is the filling of the joints between the tiles with a sealing solution. Usually its width does not exceed 1.5 cm. The thing is that natural loads act everywhere. And if the seam between the tiles is not filled with waterproofing material, it is likely that moisture will penetrate the finish and will begin its negative impact on the adhesive composition. And it is very likely that the lining will begin to peel off from the front wall after some time.
As for the frame method of finishing facades, the first difficulty is to competently assemble the frame structure. Even a slight curvature or vertical drop will lead to an uneven stone surface. And this reduction in the quality of the appearance of the facade wall.
Often a heater is placed under the frame structure. In general, this technology is the best option for repair work. That is, this way you can veneer not only stone structures. So you can revet frame or wooden houses, turning them into stone. The main task of the manufacturer is to firmly attach the frame to the wooden surface of the facade of the building. Because the veneer, even artificial stone - is the material of the exterior of the house with a large proportion. And if the frame is attached to the wall of the same wooden house poorly, then there is a high probability that the stone facing along with the frame after some time will fall and collapse.
The video shows the wet technology of facing the front wall of a private house with an artificial stone:
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So, we tried to make a review in which we talked about the decorative stone decoration of the facades of buildings and structures. Once again we will make a reservation that this is the most expensive option for decorating private houses. But it is he who speaks about the social status of the host, about his taste preferences. In addition, the stone house itself looks powerful, thoroughly, but at the same time with some charm.