The garage floor has high requirements for durability and reliability. Therefore, it is constructed in the form of a concrete structure. Today we will talk about how to properly pour concrete floor in the garage. Let us analyze the concrete solution recipe, how to calculate its quantity, and consider the creation of a concrete floor with a viewing pit.
To begin with, filling the floor in the garage Concrete can be carried out either at the stage of building the foundation, or already with the assembled box of the building. The first option is preferable, because the space is not limited by anything, which makes it easier to carry out certain operations.
Now about the requirements:
An important component of the technology for constructing a concrete floor is the strength and reliability of not only the body of the floor foundation, but also of the sub-base, and also outer cover. Everything in the compartment will resist cracking followed by spilling. Therefore, it is important to consider the loads that the floor will be subjected to. That is, it is necessary first to take into account the weight of the car for which the garage is being built.
Detergents, fuels and lubricants, solvents are substances that have a negative effect on the floor base in the garage. These are aggressive materials that make it unusable, not only concrete structures. Therefore, one of the important requirements for a concrete screed in a garage is a durable external coating that will easily tolerate the chemical attack of the materials indicated above.
The floor construction of concrete should easily tolerate moisture and temperature differences .
During the construction, must be left the slope of the plane , so that water flows in a certain direction, without forming puddles inside the garage.
The smoothness of the surface is not the strictest requirement. But a smooth floor is easier to clean.
Floor fire resistance is an important factor.
Long-term operation . Today, concrete floors, as such, even with cementation, do not leave. They are trying to cover the top with a durable floor material. Fortunately today the construction market offers such a large assortment. This is also an additional decorative lining, plus the protection of the floor from the negative impact of gasoline and technical oils.
However, facing is an additional monetary investment, and sometimes considerable. And if someone is limited in funds, he must understand that the concrete screed in its pure form can not be left in the garage. It is under the influence of significant loads quickly fail. It is recommended to use for penetration waterproofing of deep penetration and some operations with the help of which the strength of a concrete structure is increased.
Filling the floor in the garage begins with determining the concrete grade and the required amount. The best option - brand M300. It is easier to order the solution at the factory, paying a certain amount for it. If the mixture is prepared on site, the ratio of such materials as cement, sand and crushed stone is 1: 1.9: 3.7. Most wizards use the ratio of 1: 2: 4, using a bucket to measure. We add that for the preparation of the solution brand M300 is used cement M400. Just under it, this recipe is applied.
Now to the question of how much concrete will be needed to fill the screed. It depends on the size of the base to be cast and the thickness of the floor itself. For example, if the size of the building is 3x6 m, then the area is 18 m². As for the thickness, the minimum figure is 10-12 cm. The greater the vehicle weight, the greater must be the thickness of the floor in the concrete garage. For example, 20 cm or 0.2 m.
Multiply the obtained values between each other: 18x0.2 = 3.6 m³. This is the volume of concrete solution required. Order at the factory will have 4 m³, part of which can be used, for example, for a blind area or for entry.
Without a cushion, the concrete floor will crack quickly because the layers of bulk materials laid under the solution evenly distribute the load on the soil. And since the surface of the latter is uneven, then there are stresses in the differential areas leading to the fracture of the concrete structure:
First of all, dig out the ditch 30-40 cm deep in . 2>
The bottom aligns the to the maximum.
Fall asleep and level a layer of rubble or gravel 15-20 cm thick.
Fall asleep, level and tamp ( with water) sand layer 5-10 cm thick.
In order to know the exact level of laying the layers, risks are applied on the foundation, marking the required height.Focusing on them, and make backfilling of each material.
On our website you can find contacts of construction companies that offer the project development and construction service garages and other small forms for a turnkey country house. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
Now you need to decide whether the floor will be warmed in the garage or not. If "YES", then a layer of expanded clay with a thickness of 10 cm is placed on top of the pillow. Therefore, this must also be taken into account at the excavation stage.
The next operation is the installation of a reinforcement cage. It is made of steel reinforcement with a diameter of 6-8 mm in the form of a lattice with cells of 20x20 cm. The bars of the reinforcement are interconnected by knitting wire. You can use ready-made nets, which are sold in hardware stores as separate items called cards. The latter are connected by wire.
The reinforcement cage is laid in the body of the concrete floor. Therefore, the lattice is placed not on a pillow or expanded clay, but on supports that lift it above the surface. Optimally - if the reinforcement cage will be in the middle of the thickness of the concrete screed. Bricks, stone, pieces of concrete blocks, metal profiles and other strong elements are used as supports.
Now you need to take care of the floor slope, which is 1.5-2%. For this purpose, along the garage, special aluminum lighthouses are placed on the reinforced cage. If there are none, then wooden slats, metal pipes or a corner will do. Laying produce the entire length of the room with a pitch of 1.0-1.5 m. The angle is determined by the protractor. The slope should be towards the gate. Beacons are attached to the floor with a concrete solution, which is distributed along the length of the beacons in small piles.
Everything is ready, now a floor screed is formed in the garage. Begin with the wall far from the entrance, evenly distributing the mixture over the area. The alignment is done by a long rule, which is laid on the beacons and pulls the concrete on itself.
How to make a concrete floor in the garage, shown in the video:
After a few hours, is poured with liquid concrete solution with a thickness of 2-3 cm. Thus, produce a maximum alignment of the floor base.
A day later, the floor is overwritten by a special machine .
After 28 days, you can get to floor - usually, polymeric coatings or paint are used.
On our website you can familiarize yourself with the most popular projects of garages and other small forms for a country house - from construction companies represented at the exhibition "Low-Rise Country".
It is formed before the start of all the above operations. That is, they dig out a pit, while the ground is not filled with anything. As for the size, it is usually guided by the following rules:
width is determined by the distance between the wheels of the car, but taking into account that the distance from the edges of the pit to the walls of the garage should not be less than 1 m;
length is selected taking into account the length of the car, plus the ease of passing into the pit;
depth depends on two factors: the height of the person owning the garage and the level of groundwater.
Note that if the groundwater level is less than 2.5 m, then it is better to refuse the viewing pit. It will be filled with water all the time.
How the pit is formed:
Mark up taking into account that the walls of the pit will be laid out of piece building materials. For example, if the width is planned in the range of 80-85 cm, then the marking is applied with a width of 120-130 cm.
Dig a excavation, the walls and bottom of which are well aligned.
Dig a ditch towards one of the walls. It will lay plastic pipes for the construction of ventilation. The latter can pass through the foundation or wall. With this we must immediately decide.
The bottom is covered with rubble and sand . That is, a pillow is formed. First, 10 cm thick sand is filled up, then crushed stone - 10 cm. Each layer is compacted.
The pit is completely closed with a waterproofing film or roofing material. The main task of the manufacturer is to make a bath of waterproofing without gaps.
Spend mounting pipes for ventilation . The lower edge is lowered closer to the bottom.
It might be interesting! In the article on The following link read about how far from the fence you can build a garage.
Now, with regard to the formation of a viewing pit. Use different technologies.For example, a monolithic structure, poured concrete solution. It is difficult, long and expensive. It is easier to use concrete blocks or bricks. They simply lay out the walls of the pit and raise the masonry to the level of pouring screed. Subsequently, laying inside can be plastered. And you can leave intact.
And the last stage in the formation of the observation pit is the bottom pouring with concrete. The solution is poured with a thickness of 5-7 cm with alignment horizon. Although the strict requirements of horizontal floor pit no.
Clearly about the installation of a concrete floor in a garage with a pit, shown in the following video:
The screed in the garage is filled using standard technology, in which there are some nuances.
Before pouring concrete, lay damping tape along the walls of the foundation. It allows the floor base to expand under loads and temperature changes without cracking.
If a heated floor is erected in a garage , then it is better to close the covered clay with a waterproofing film, the edges of which are removed along the foundation walls by 10 cm.
If the floor area in the garage is large, then pouring is done in sections.
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about options for garage heating.
Since the garage floor is subjected to serious loads, you should not avoid hardening it. The main objective of this process is to tie together the particles of concrete, so that it does not crumble or gather dust. Consider several technologies.
To do this, use special chemical compounds, called sealers. When applied to a concrete floor, a chemical reaction occurs between the components of the sealer and the concrete components (carbonate and lime). A gel-like substance is formed on the floor, which penetrates deeply (up to 10 mm) into the body of concrete. Here it hardens, connecting between the particles of the mixture.
Sealers simply poured on the floor and spread evenly with a squeegee or roller.
Add some water.
After half an hour gel formation begins.
After a couple of hours, the remains of the composition are removed with water using a doctor blade.
, topping is a powder based on cement, chemical additives and fine-grained filler (quartz sand, corundum, metallic dust). This technology is quite complicated. It requires the presence of trowels, as well as knowledge of some of the nuances of pouring the floor. For example, plasticizers cannot be added to a concrete solution for a floor in a garage. The process of hardening is carried out in 3-6 hours after pouring the screed.
It is at this time that the first backfilling of the powder, which begins to absorb moisture from the floor, is carried out. Immediately pass trowel machine. Then another layer of powder is poured and grouting is carried out. If necessary, the process is carried out for the third time.
Per 1 m² takes 5-8 kg of powder. Reinforced topping floor must be covered with a protective compound: varnish, paint and other things.
Today, manufacturers of paint and varnish products offer a huge range of paints for concrete. For the garage is better to choose polyurethane compositions or based on epoxy resins. They withstand heavy loads.
The way paints are applied is simple. They are applied only on the concrete surface of the floor, which is twice treated with a waterproofing compound of deep penetration. Apply paint with a roller.
It might be interesting! In the article on the following link read about options for lighting in the garage.
Forming a concrete floor in a garage is not the easiest process. The main requirement for the production of works - strictly follow the technology, not forgetting the hardening of the surface. To deviate from the technological stages and neglect the nuances and useful tips can not. This will reduce the strength of the concrete base.