Recently, the construction of houses using Finnish technology with the use of glued laminated timber has become increasingly popular. However, before building a house of laminated veneer lumber, you need to understand all the details and understand what this material is, what are its features, in which cases the application of this technology is relevant.
Glulam laminated - is a high-strength environmentally friendly material for construction, obtained by complex processing of wood.
The production technology is a multi-step process that includes:
At the first stage of processing the wood is sorted. At the same time, the softest part of it (the core) is separated from the core, after which the most durable parts of the timber are sawn into boards.
At the second stage of production, the edged board is sent to the drying chamber to change the moisture index. The required temperature regime is determined and regulated by a computer system, which allows for uniform drying of the material. The duration of this process depends on the season: temperature and humidity. In the summer, drying takes from 6 to 14 days.
The third stage assumes determination of material defects , production and gluing of blanks (lamellae). To do this, the board goes to the ramming machine, where it undergoes a thickness calibration process, then it is cut to the width. The tortsovochny machine allows to clear material of defects and roughnesses then, on a special planing machine lamels are made.
Gluing of lamels is the fourth stage at which carefully processed parts are joined into a single timber using a hydraulic press. There are special requirements for glue: it must be waterproof, durable, environmentally friendly and meet quality standards. It is important to note that the humidity of the parts to be glued should not exceed 3%.
In order to increase the strength of gluing, a technology of opposite selection of wood fibers is used, when the so-called annual rings on two lamellae are located in the opposite direction from each other. The thickness of the finished product can be up to 180 mm, using from 2 to 5 lamellae. Some manufacturers offer the production of glued laminated timber of a non-standard size (up to 210 mm), explaining this by the peculiarities of the climate of central Russia.
And the last step is profiling. The finished timber is machined on milling machines - grooves and thermal locks (elements that allow you to assemble walls and floors as a designer) are cut through its surface, make holes for dowels (special wooden nails).
On our site you can familiarize yourself with the most popular projects houses from glued timber from construction companies represented at the exhibition of houses Low-rise Country.
Before building wooden houses from glued laminated timber in Russia, construction companies carefully examined the characteristics of this material. According to the results of this analysis, it can be noted that the use of laminated veneer lumber allowed us to solve several problems typical of wood construction, the main of which are: the shrinkage of the building, the probability of cracks and the change in the geometry of the structure.
According to the technology of use, glued laminated wood is divided into two types:
When using a profiled bar, the building is erected according to the constructor's assembly technology. This type of installation completely eliminates the likelihood of cracks and helps reduce construction time. But at the same time, the cost of a glued timber house with a given profile is somewhat higher.
In turn, the profiled glued laminated timber differs in production technology and is divided into three types:
Most often, softwood is used to produce timber. Moreover, the technical characteristics of lumber depend on the quality and type of wood. Cedar and larch have a more dense structure than spruce or pine, so in order to achieve maximum thermal insulation of the structure being erected, the requirements for the thickness of the building material used will differ depending on which particular laminated timber is made of.
In general, houses from glued timber (they are often called "Finnish") can be attributed to the most durable and warm designs that do not require additional insulation. And ease of installation is an added advantage. However, the high cost of the material makes this technology not accessible to everyone. The average price per 1 m 3 glued laminated timber is formed depending on the section and is about 20 thousand rubles.
In order to build a truly comfortable home, it is worthwhile to determine in advance the main features of the construction of houses from glued timber.
Foundation. When choosing the type of foundation for a wooden house, first of all, it is necessary to take into account the initial soil characteristics and the number of floors of the future building .
Buzzy one is considered to be soil capable of absorbing moisture. Basically, these are clay and fine sandy soil types. Sand and clay absorb moisture, which in the cold season when the temperature drops below 0 C freezes and expands, due to which the volume of soil increases greatly. At the same time, in the warm season, when the temperature rises and the soil thaws, a reverse reaction occurs, and the volume of the soil returns to its original value. This phenomenon is considered to be heaving of the soil.
In spite of the fact that such a light material as glued laminated timber can be perfectly based on a shallow-recessed strip foundation, it is better to prefer slab-like or pile-type foundations with heaving soil.
The slab foundation is the foundation foundation in the form of a single monolithic slab whose area is equal to or slightly larger than the area of the building being erected on it.
The pile foundation is a structure made of supports (piles) driven into the ground, which are joined from above by a special frame (grillage).
The shallow-deepened tape foundation is the foundation, made in the form of a single, low-depth concrete strip into the ground, which runs along the perimeter and under the bearing walls of the building.
On the one hand, the strip foundation has a number of advantages, the main of which are: economy and speed of installation. In addition, its ability to "swim" (evenly rise and fall when groundwater moves), has established itself on the positive side. But in the northern territories of Russia laying such a foundation is not recommended due to the strong freezing of the soil.
Floor device. As a rule, wooden laminated timber is laid on logs in houses made of laminated veneer (construction of wooden beams raised above the surface, laid in parallel at a certain distance from each other). At the same time, mineral wool or fiberglass is used as insulation (the material is laid in rows between the beams, and is covered with boards on top). Despite the fact that this method requires additional consumption of lumber, it is this floor that enjoys the greatest popularity. In turn, this design compensates costs due to durability and the possibility of additional heat saving.
Construction of walls . With many years of experience, the construction of walls of glued profiled timber does not take much time. The main thing, during construction, to monitor the uniform construction of the structure horizontally and vertically, as well as to ensure that the marking of each timber corresponds to the project. The fixing of the timber is carried out thanks to the dowels (special wooden nails), arranged in the corresponding holes drilled earlier.
Here you can familiarize yourself with the catalog of the most famous construction companies specializing on the construction of laminated lumber , among the low-rise Country houses represented at the exhibition.
Roof Mounting . The roof of a wooden house is arranged according to the principle of a truss system. First of all, the calculation of the truss construction is carried out taking into account the maximum external loads.
The next step is laying the power plate (the base of the truss structure extending from the top along the perimeter of the entire building). Here is used timber, which is mounted waterproofing material.
Next, installation of the main rafters (bearing roof rails, which are responsible for its inclination), intermediate rafter legs (beams used to give the structure the necessary rigidity) and directly the installation of the roof occurs.
It is better to use euroruberoid as a roofing material (raw materials made by impregnating special roofing paper with bitumen), because it is the lightest, besides its technical characteristics meet all quality standards.
Metal roofing is more expensive, but for ready-made laminated timber houses, the use of this material is quite relevant.
One of the most popular roofing materials today is clay tile . This product is environmentally friendly, has high strength and durability. However, giving preference to the tile, you need to consider that to use it (due to a rather large weight) will require additional calculation of the load on the truss structure.
In more detail about the features of construction and the cost of turnkey, look at the houses of glued laminated timber in the following video:
House Building Technology from laminated veneer lumber is relatively new and in our country is not time tested. However, after weighing all the characteristics of the material and method of installation, we can conclude that the house of laminated veneer lumber will have all the qualities that are necessary for the construction of a truly comfortable home.