In this article you will learn what a roof gable is and how it is constructed correctly. Below is a detailed description of the installation technologies of various finishing materials and supporting structures, the choice of components and the features of their use are described in detail. In addition to all this, you can get acquainted with the requirements that apply to the gable walls of residential buildings. After reading the text you will not have difficulty with the order of construction work on the construction of the gable of your house.
The gable is a section of the wall that is bounded below by the ceiling, and above by the planes of the roof slopes. It has any gable, broken or single-pitch construction. Also the presence of such a component is typical for the Danish roof. Gables are used as the final element of many architectural structures. So any portico or portal is simply unthinkable without it. Another such design is needed for the decoration of window and door trim panels. Even in antiquity, pediments are overlapped by projections of the cornice plate.
By the presence of different components, the gables are simple and complex. The second option, in contrast to the first, involves the use of vertical fortifications as supports. In addition, in a complex structure, the eaves and thrusts end before reaching the central part of the wall.
The gable is erected only in the vertical direction and can be either triangular or trapezoidal and sometimes even found round and polygonal.
The gable wall encloses the attic or attic space. The difference between them is that the first is residential, and the second technical. The type of construction is designed based on the characteristics of operation. For example, in the case of the construction of a cold roof, a layer of thermal insulation must be laid between the outer and inner walls. For the construction of the attic, the insulation must be under the sheathing nodes.
By the way, in professional terminology gables are understood to mean the upper parts of load-bearing walls made of stone, brick or other block materials. Wooden structures are called gables, and roofs with their use are called gables.
Low-rise private construction combines both categories into one class of gables. Despite the differences in the device, for their construction are used in many ways similar technologies and materials.
There are two types of gable arrangement:
The first one provides for the erection of a framework consisting of struts, struts and braces , which is then sheathed with various coatings. This method is distinguished by its simplicity and lower cost. Due to the optimal ratio of price-quality, it is the most common method in the civil construction of gable decoration. With the use of such technology, lightweight roofs are often erected for technical constructions.
The second way of arranging the gable is covering the vertical wall made of foam block, brick or any other building material. This method is characterized by increased complexity of execution and requires an increase in the budget for construction work. Most often this technology is used when carrying out repairs or reconstruction. This method is distinguished by its external elegance and high aesthetic qualities, so it is often used for decorative decoration of the walls of buildings. At the same time, mostly houses are sheathed from cheap materials.
Moisture resistant is often used to design walls plywood and drywall for outdoor work. But these materials must be painted and hid varnish after installation. In addition to these, polymer panels, corrugated sheet and polycarbonate sheets are also used. But the most common and profitable options are edged boards and PVC siding.
If the masonry of the triangular wall ends consists of bricks or other block materials, then the sheathing of a bar or board is erected quickly, simple to perform and does not require significant costs. This is due to the ease with which the wood is processed, which has a positive effect on the payment for the services of a construction company. Another frame of the timber weighs quite a bit, compared with the brickwork. Because of this, it does not create an additional load on the overlap. And in general, the pediment allows reducing the weight of the truss system, while increasing its support area.
Any gable of wood is built using frame technology. This means that the frame is first erected, and after that a bar, edged or grooved board, and also a shingle or any other finishing material is sewn onto it. More often, designers expect the design so that the gabled racks serve as a support for the sheathing for roofing sheeting made of corrugated metal, metal tiles or other sheet materials.
Gable walls of lumber can be erected above brick or block walls, over log lines or wooden boxes. The step between the supporting bars is calculated based on the wind strength characteristic of the area. Also taken into account is the bearing capacity of floors. Most often, the distance between racks is in the range of values from 0.6 to 1 m. Frame elements should be located directly above the racks of the walls themselves.
Roofs with a frame upholstered in plank or timber are most characteristic of buildings of the Canadian type. They quite effectively complement any laying or frame. In addition, the truss system receives additional support, and the lightness of the whole structure makes it possible not to reinforce the load-bearing walls. Therefore, the decoration of the gable of a private house in this way is most popular in our country.
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To begin, let's deal with some construction terms:
A cantilever beam is a type of construction farm designed to support any protruding parts. In our case, this eaves overhang.
The gable support is a vertical stand on which the crate is mounted for further production of lining.
The top piping of a building is a bar or board connecting the protruding ends of the beams and the rafters. It is necessary in order to give the structure rigidity and additional area for fixing the sheathing.
The support for the gable wall can be made in the form of a power plate, top trim or floor beam. The type of this element depends on the material from which the bearing walls of the building are made. If the overhangs of the structure project more than 30 cm, then they are strengthened by installing additional short beams.
If the removal is less than 300mm, then its design includes a board with a section of more than 19cm, which is attached to the beams with nails or screws. Also in the composition of such an overhang is a frontal panel, fixed on releases of the end beams and on the cornice trim, as well as bars connecting these two boards. With the release of less than 30 cm as an upper wall trim, you can use the extreme rafter.
Another very important point: when arranging takeaways less than 300mm, the casing should reach the upper edge of the rafters, when carrying out more than 300mm - to the lower end of the cantilever beams. Moreover, in the second case, a strapping beam of the same cross section with gable stands is used. But it must be lower than the rafters, because the cantilever beams rest on it.
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During the design and construction of the gable, the following rules that are included in the list of joint ventures 31-105-2002 should be observed:
The installation step of the gable posts should be chosen so that it was equal to the distance between the supports of the load-bearing wall. And they should be located one above the other. Attach them to the top trim frame structure.
The installation step of the gable stands on a brick or block foot should meet wind resistance requirements for this region. It can be located in the range of values from 1 meter to 60 centimeters.
The distance between the supports for warm roofs is determined by proceeding from the width of the plate or the insulation layer that should be laid between the gable racks.
If a heater is used to create a gable, its outer side should be covered with a waterproofing layer , and the inside should always be covered with a vapor barrier film or membrane.
To create the upper trim of the eaves overhang, protruding less than 30 cm, , the extreme rafters are used. To increase the reliability of the roof, they should be made double.
If the gables are joined with wide overhangs, then their binding should consist of of the special bar . It is installed slightly below the rafter legs. It is shifted down so that it is at the level of the lower edge of a number of cantilever rafters.
Gables with an overhang, the width of which is less than 300 mm, are sheathed close to the outer edge of rafter legs.
The lining of a gable having a wide overhang is made close to the surface of the outer outline of the bar, intended for for fastening the plating .
For fixing all the elements of the roof and gable decoration more often all used nails and screws. To strengthen the nodes and the critical parts of the structure, use staples or metal plates, as well as building corners.
It is very important that the arrangement of the gable conforms to all the rules of frame construction. So, the first requirement for these structures is the presence of a layer of vapor-insulating material from the side of the roofing room. After that, there should be insulation, the outer side of which requires the presence of waterproofing.
According to the technology, heat-insulating plates should be placed between the skin, crate or frame elements, which play the role of enclosing structures. But it is important that the layer of insulation fill the entire allotted space in length and width. Otherwise, there will be air gaps between adjacent structural elements. This will significantly degrade the attic and attic characteristics and make them blown.
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It is possible to build a building gable both before and after installing the lathing with a roof covering. Most often this is done before the roofing works. This option has its advantages:
It is more convenient to install all elements and components of the truss system on rigid gable walls.
Another solution that allows to reduce the windage of the entire roofing pie so as not to allow the wind to blow it up from below.
In addition, the timely construction of gables allows you to give geometrical parameters to the entire roof.
Creating a gable wall before starting roofing works makes it possible to use the component parts without first fitting the trim. All excess parts are simply sawn off after the wall frame is fully sewn up.
But there is one more plus: a well-equipped pediment increases the safety of roofing work.
Proper erection of the gable implies full lining of the structural frame. But in order for the design to be reliable and stable, the presence of sheathing is mandatory. It can be made of a metal profile or a corner, but the most often used is a bar with a cross section of 50 * 50 or 40 * 50. In his favor, say the ease of processing and reasonable price. Also, the timber is well compatible with any lumber for wall cladding.
If, however, metal parts are used for arranging the batten, then it is worth taking into account differences in the thermal conductivity of materials. Between the steel crate and wood upholstery will simply need some layer of waterproofing, like roofing material or burlap. This is due to the fact that the difference in the heat technology of materials leads to the mandatory appearance of condensate.
It might be interesting! In the article the following link read about the ventilation of the roofing space.
When installing the batten, the start for the edges of the rafters should be at least 2.5 cm. This is to prevent precipitation from falling on the walls of the building. Sheathing on the sheathing can be both vertical and horizontal. Its direction should be perpendicular to the bars or frame plates.At the same time, the horizontal lining allows for the complete absence of any crate, only bridges are required every 80 cm.
To produce the upholstery of the gable wall, they use not only unedged boards, but also lining or boards with quarters on both sides. If the financial capabilities allow it, then sheet pile boards are also applicable. In this case, the bottom edge of the first board must be cut.
The trim installation starts from the bottom up. On buildings with a gable tint, the lower border of the skin is a bar laid on the interface of the gable with the overhang. The sheet piling board should be turned upward, although this makes it difficult to install. Otherwise, because of the ingress of rainwater into the junction, festering and fungal diseases will begin.
If you have planned to build a house with a gable, then this one will be interesting to you video about the features of siding:
When arranging the roof roof gable, the board is not drawn with millimeter precision: you should just cut off an extra piece after you install it in its place. Any openings and holes in the wall can be cut out after construction. But still most of the masters are convinced that it is better to do this beforehand, prior to the installation of the skin. If the design of the roof is insulated type, then the doorframes should be inserted before embedding the gable frame.
In order for atmospheric moisture not to fall into the joints of trim panels, they are made from two sides by spikes. In this case, the outer spike should be turned down. The best protection against rain is provided by the horizontal direction of the skin. If lining or sheet piling is used, the middle spike should be turned upwards.
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link, read about repairing the roof of a private house: the stages of work - from inspection to the restoration of the roof.
PVC siding was originally designed specifically for arranging gable walls and relieving them. The material is characterized by high resistance to any weather conditions and precipitation. Siding is laid quickly and easily.
There is a huge selection of different finishing siding options for pediments. It can be made in the form of boards, logs, bricks and stone tiles. The panels are very firmly and comfortably fit together, which contributes to a smooth pattern without gaps and offsets. Also finishing the front wall with siding does not take much time and does not require a large amount of labor.
Many professionals believe that PVC siding combines all the best technical and technological qualities of finishing materials. After all, it is lightweight and at the same time durable, fits perfectly, is not expensive, and its service life can be up to 40 years. Another plus is that siding can be used for the reconstruction and repair of old buildings. In addition, vinyl siding is often used to complete the house, not just the gable.
The panels are interconnected by strong latches that are located on the long sides of the segments . By the same siding frame is fixed with nails or screws.
In order to connect all the component parts from the corners, additional fittings are used in the form of connecting, starting or finishing profiles, moldings, corner locks and near-window slats. When buying connectors you should definitely pay attention to the fact that they are compatible with this type of siding.
A special flange with elongated holes for attaching to the batten is used as a starting rail for vinyl trimming. Sometimes there is an additional bend on top of it, which is needed in order to give rigidity to the whole system.
The front part of the siding panel is called a form factor. She imitates any material. Also, there are models of this material, having a form characteristic of several coatings at once. Most often, their components are wider.
This video will help you choose the right and reliable siding for facing the gable wall:
It can be interesting! In article on the following link read about the overhangs of the roof - their classification and the nuances of installation.
In combination with its simplicity and clarity, vinyl siding has special features, therefore, for covering with such gable material, it is necessary to comply with a certain process technology. The fact is that, like all plate polymers, PVC tends to increase in volume when heated. Because of this, the components of vinyl siding never fit tightly, otherwise they will simply burst or warp.
In the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride siding, different manufacturers use different mixtures and methods for casting plates. Therefore, often the constituent parts of different companies do not match in size. That is why it is recommended to purchase all the cladding elements manufactured by one manufacturer.
Now we will understand what the elements of the cladding are, except for the panels themselves:
The starting profile is necessary in order for to fix the bottom of the plates. With its installation, installation of siding always begins. Such an element is often made of upper panels, because they will be cut off in any case.
The J-profile is needed in order for to overlap the skin segments from the sides. This is a fairly universal component, because it is suitable for different types of siding. It is sometimes obtained by cutting off the bottom of the panels, but the width of such a profile will be less than the width of the factory product.
The H-profile is two docked J-profiles and is used by for joining sheets above and below along the length . It is important to note that if instead of one H-profile, two connected J-profiles are used, then the seam between them needs additional sealing.
A small margin should be left at the attachment points of the sheets places to allow material to expand. The panel should be about 1 cm less than the distance it is supposed to cover. In this case, all the cracks remain under the profile. This indent is suitable for segments 3m long, and for other sizes its size is calculated independently.
There must be an indent of about 1 mm between the head of the nail or screw and the vinyl coating. If the screws are tightly tightened, they are loosened by a half turn, and staples or nails are not finished. All fasteners are screwed or clogged in the middle of the oval holes.
If the panels are mounted in a vertical position, the technology of this process is somewhat different. The upper attachment points are mounted close to the border of the hole, and the rest of the accessories - as usual.
When the panels are installed vertically, they expand by 1/3 of the linear index, so the margin at the top is usually 0.5 mm and at the bottom 1 mm.
If you think how to sheathe a roof gable, then consider this option like vinyl siding. It has a lot of advantages because of its practicality and good technological adaptability to various influences.
It might be interesting! In the article on the following link, read about the varieties and prices of vinyl siding for exterior home.
PVC siding can be fixed to the walls of any PVC frame structure without additional actions. But at the same time, all elements must be secured evenly and securely.
But if a brick, block wall or blockhouse is sheathed with PVC panels, then the presence of a batten is simply necessary. It is necessary in order to level the surface and form the necessary ventilation gap between the wall and the finishing material. This will increase the durability of the structure and its resistance to fungal diseases and decay.
For the device of the batten there are two options of materials:
Wooden beam , the humidity of which does not exceed 12%. Manufacturers of PVC panels recommend choosing material with a cross section of 60 * 60mm. This is necessary for precise fixing elements in the center of the holes.
Another option is a galvanized profile , one side of which must also be 60 mm.
During installation the battens are installed first two extreme laths. Then between them the cord is tensioned, which serves as a guide for the location of the remaining bars.
Wood used in antiseptic and fire retardant treatment is used to set up the crates. Metal profile can also be used without any coatings.
Reshetins are usually installed perpendicular to panels.If in the region there is a strong effect of the winds, then the step between the bars should be no more than 40 cm, and sometimes it should be reduced to 20 cm. On average, this distance should be in the range from 50 to 70 cm.
Specifically, so that you have an idea about the installation of panels on the frame, this video was made:
In order to cut the plates of the desired shape, special patterns are used, which are made on the basis of the angle of inclination of the roof and its shape. The material for them can be thick paper or cardboard.
When cutting panels into templates, always keep a temperature margin, rather than customize they are flush with the edges of the gable. At the very top row of panels, the nail bar is completely cut off, and holes for installation are drilled at the top of the slab.
The point for drilling is determined after the application of the segment to the seat. But the hole should be located no closer than 3 cm from the cut edge of the plate.
The installation of the panels itself goes in a vertical direction from bottom to top. The installation begins with the fixing of the starting profile and continues with the planned fixation of the plates and connecting elements.
The video contains a detailed story about the features of finishing works using vinyl siding:
Installing vertical siding on the roof gable implies additional labor costs, because this method of laying more difficult to achieve the perfect result.
Vertical installation of vinyl siding should be done in the following order:
At the edges of the gable wall, corner bars are fixed.
A plumb line is lowered from the top of the truss system in order to designate the center axis .
On this line , H-profile is set.
With a predetermined pitch , other plates are fastened parallel to the central one.
Next begins the installation of panels, with the first segments being installed in the corners of the structure.
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the house decorated with white cedar - "window to the lake."
A roofing gable is an important architectural element used in the construction of many buildings. It must be properly and beautifully arrange. There are a large number of materials for the creation of this design, as well as methods for mounting the casing. This article has collected all the basic information about common technologies for the construction of gable walls and the choice of materials for construction work. With such information, you can order work on the construction of the gable, which will be different reliability and pleasant appearance.