In most regions of Russia, the house has an average of about three seasons, as the climate is quite severe. As a result, a lot of resources and, therefore, considerable expenses from the family budget are required for residential heating. Energy-efficient house is a residential structure, the heat efficiency of which (heat loss through the floor, walls, ceiling, doors and windows) in comparison with the standard cottage is improved by 30 percent or more.
Before you begin to select materials for home insulation and their thickness, you should decide on some important initial values :
future area at home ;
the area of each facade ;
type of openings for windows and their dimensions;
surface volume basements and foundations;
internal volume of living space ;
height of the ceiling;
var Ant ventilation - forced or natural.
The main heat loss in the house occurs through:
enclosing structures, namely walls, foundation and roof;
Already at the project preparation stage, it is worth striving to create minimal heat loss in all these components of the house at once, i.e. they should be similar, about 33.3%. Thus, an ideal balance is achieved between the benefits and the special additional insulation.
Important! Most of the heat from the house goes through the window openings, so when you design a project, you should try to build a house so that the windows are on the sunny side, heating the glass. Thus, solar insolation will compensate for the loss of thermal resource from the house.
The construction of an eco-house is usually much more expensive. Usually, this is 15-20 percent, but these costs will justify themselves over time. This time is approximately during the first year of living in a new house.
A set of measures to improve the energy efficiency of a house:
heat insulation of walls - almost all insulation options include the creation of composite walls, tons . e. puff, where each layer has its own purpose (carrier, insulating part and cladding);
insulation of the ceiling - all heat rises, therefore insulation of this component it is very important at home;
floor insulation - cold floor covering contributes to rapid heat loss (using polystyrene or mineral wool);
eploizolirovanie window and door openings.
An important characteristic of eco-housing is the balance between transmission or ventilation heat loss and its formation, together with energy from the sun, heating, and internal heat sources. To achieve it, the following components are important:
compactness of the building;
thermal insulation heated area;
input of thermal energy from the sun , through the exit of window openings to the south with a deviation of up to 30 degrees and no darkening.
To reduce the cost of energy resources should use household appliances with high levels of energy efficiency. Ideal passive housing is a thermos-house with no heating. Water can be heated using a solar collector or a heat pump.
On our site you can familiarize yourself with the most popular projects of houses from construction companies, presented at the exhibition "Low-Rise Country".
An energy-efficient house has a number of positive qualities over other types of living spaces:
cost-effectiveness - if the house is passive, then all energy costs will remain at the same low level, even if the cost increases;
increased comfort level - cleanliness, a pleasant microclimate and fresh air, all this is provided by a special engineering system;
energy saving - the heating needs of these houses are 10 times less than the usual mi;
health benefits - no mold, no drafts, increased humidity and constantly fresh air;
no harm to nature - modern energy efficient technologies reduce the level of harmful substances in the atmosphere.
Passive living space is considered a special standard for energy efficiency which gives the opportunity to environmentally clean and economically arrange the comfort of living, with the causing of minimal harm to the environment. At the same time, resource consumption is maximally reduced, which means that there is no need to install a separate heating system, or the size and power of the one already created is quite small.
It may be interesting! In the article on the following link read about one-story chalet style house.
Already during the selection of a land plot for the construction of future living space, the natural landscape should be taken into account. The area must necessarily be flat and not have elevation differences. However, if the drops still exist, then they can be used favorably, it will ensure the supply of water, the costs for which are minimal.
As mentioned earlier, you should choose a more sunlit side, because it can be used instead of electric. Sound insulation and thermal insulation must be foreseen when the project of an energy-efficient house is being prepared, because saving energy without them is simply impossible.
The slope of the porch, the roof and the visor should have an optimal width so that there is no shade in the presence of daylight, while protecting the facade from rain and overheating. The roof is constructed taking into account the critical weight of snow in winter. Do not forget to organize high-quality insulation and competent water drains.
To achieve a high level of energy savings, building energy-efficient homes requires competent work at the same time in four areas :
Lack of thermal bridges - try to avoid inclusions that conduct heat. To do this, there is a special program for calculating the temperature field, which makes it possible to detect and conduct an analysis of the presence of all unfavorable places of all structures of the building fencing for future optimization.
Heat recovery , mechanical ventilation and internal sealing. Finding and fixing its leakage is created by organizing tests of airtightness of buildings.
Thermal insulation should be provided in all external areas - butt, corner and transitional. In this case, the heat transfer coefficient should be less than 0.15 W / m2K.
Modern windows are low-emission windows that are filled with an inert gas.
It might be interesting! B article on the following link read about one-story house of aerated concrete.
The main purpose of creating such housing is to reduce the consumption of heat and electricity, especially in the hot period. Among the main tasks :
the simple shape of the perimeter and the building and the shape of the roof;
complete tightness ;
build-up of the insulation layer - at least 15 cm;
orientation to the south;
exception "cold bridges";
use environmentally friendly and warm materials;
the use of renewable natural energy;
the creation of mechanical ventilation , not only natural.
Natural ventilation produces the greatest amount of heat loss, which means its efficiency is very low. This system does not function at all in the summer, and in the winter it is necessary to ventilate the room in a timely manner.
The installation of a device such as an air recuperator allows you to heat the incoming air. It provides about 90% of heat by heating the air, which means that you can get rid of the usual pipes, boilers and radiators.
This procedure is quite is real for residential premises in good condition, i.e., if it is not subject to demolition in a couple of years, then it can be reconstructed without any problems. Reducing heat loss is possible with the help of modern technologies and materials.
At the first stage of it is necessary to find places where there are leaks. These are the so-called cold bridges, and it is they who take the largest part of the heat throughout the house.You need to look for them in the roof, walls, doorways and window openings. The cellar, basement and attic are places that should not be ignored.
Fungus and mold is another indicator of the presence of cold bridges, as they are most often formed at the places where the temperature drops and, hence, the appearance of condensate.
The second stage is the choice of warming materials. They must be environmentally friendly and clean. The most popular option is warm plaster. Such material will help to effectively cope with various joints and tight seams. Polyethylene is another excellent insulating material. Its thickness should be not less than two hundred microns and it should be mounted under wooden paneling.
Speaking of an economical house, in the article only thermal energy was mentioned. But you can also save on electricity and water. To save electricity, it is not necessary to deny yourself many familiar and convenient things. Use automated and programmable devices, such as electronic switches with motion sensors.
You can also save on water. It is impossible to control the consumption of such a resource automatically. Follow the water meter indicators more often, reduce watering of house territories, introduce drip and limited watering with the help of a specialized valve.
You can clearly see the technology of an energy-efficient house in the video:
On our website you can find contacts of construction companies that offer country-house design and insulation services houses. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
The scheme for creating an energy efficient house is quite simple. The main thing is to plan the construction of an economical house at the design stage. But we must remember that the construction of such a smart house involves initially large investments than in the case of the construction of an ordinary cottage. However, over time, all these costs will pay off and bear fruit.