A type of base for light and ultra-light structures is a columnar foundation. This construction of the foundation is one of the cheapest, so it is often used in the construction of small household and suburban buildings.
In some situations, the foundation on poles it is preferable to other structures:
Construction of the building with walls of light building materials and without a basement.
During the construction of temporary barns and other outbuildings.
The need to save as much as possible on the foundation.
All of the above, plus the inexpediency of building strip foundations.
In addition, the popularity of the column base is characterized by the following design advantages:
it takes minimum time to mount the columns;
low labor costs
availability of building materials;
usually there is no need for special construction equipment;
requires a minimum of materials for heat and moisture insulation;
a long period of operation;
the possibility of mounting the structure on soils prone significant freezing;
simplicity in maintenance and repair of the structure;
the cost of the columnar base is significantly lower compared to other foundations.
Installation of a column structure is not recommended in the following situations:
the presence of weak or mobile soil on the construction site;
the soil is composed of a significant portion of peat or clay;
high level of groundwater occurrence;
the use of heavy building materials and the construction of several floors;
differential heights on the construction site more than two meters.
Also, the column basement will have to be abandoned if for some reason a basement is needed under construction.
The column base is poles installed in a specific order, holding the structure and transferring loads from it to the soil.
Usually at the column foundation the distance between the columns is from 1. 5 to 2. 5 meters from each other. Less simply impractical - then the trump card of the foundation - cheap, will be questionable. No longer done because of the possible sagging of the lag and the loosening of the whole structure in the future.
Mandatory columns are mounted at angles, points of intersection of walls, along the line of installation of load-bearing walls and beams of the future structure.
In the section, the support section can be round or rectangular. Different materials can be used for the production:
Monolithic reinforced concrete . The most durable and stable design, which is made of concrete, reinforced reinforcing bars.
Brick . It is recommended to use a red solid ceramic brick. It has high strength, is resistant to low temperatures and does not absorb moisture.
Concrete blocks . Slightly inferior to monolithic reinforced concrete. But for their installation it is necessary to use special equipment, since the blocks have a significant own weight.
Booth or Botobet . Mixture of rubble stone with concrete. Suitable for light outbuildings, but significantly "weighted" the estimate. It will require careful selection of stones, since the support density depends on the degree of their adherence to each other.
Tree . Recently, wooden pillars for the foundation are used only for temporary and lightest buildings. In any case, solid wood is used: oak, pine or larch.
Combining the pillars into a monolithic structure is carried out using a grillage.
So that the load from the structure is evenly transferred to the ground, on the columns set the grillage. It combines columnar structural elements into a single system and minimizes the difference in shrinkage of the base pillars. At the stage of installation of columnar bases, a special pin or bolt is installed in them, on which a grillage will later be mounted.
Options of the grillage equipment:
Wooden beams with a large cross-section. Used for wooden buildings of low weight.
I-beams or T-frames. Can be used as a separate element, or serve as a base for wooden logs.
Concrete beams - can be prefabricated or monolithic. They are installed, if necessary, to ensure maximum stability and durability of the building, if dense wood or relatively heavy construction materials are used for the construction.
On our site you can find contacts of construction companies that offer the service of building small architectural forms (gazebos, hozbloki, grill houses) turnkey. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
Before installing the structure, it is necessary to perform the necessary calculations and prepare the construction site.
Before starting the calculations, it is necessary to take a soil sample at a depth of 0. 5 meters below the pillar mounting level. The analysis will allow to understand whether the soil is suitable for the installation of a columnar foundation.
Required calculations include:
Determining the weight of a future building. This allows us to determine the total pressure on the ground: the total mass of walls, floors, roof, wind load, planned furniture.
Calculation of the number of supports . The perimeter of the structure is divided by two meters (step of mounting supports). In addition, it is necessary to add pillars that will be installed under the internal supporting walls and crosshairs.
The area of support columns . Tabular value. For example, the support area with a diameter of 40 cm is 1250 cm. Square.
Their number directly depends on the area of the supporting pillars. The smaller the footing area, the more their number must be installed.
For each material the minimum size of the support section is established. For monolithic reinforced concrete, this value is 0. 3 meters, bricks - 0. 38 meters, concrete - 0. 4 meters, rubble and butobeton - 0. 6 meters.
The calculation of the base of the pillars must be carried out in such a way that the support size exceeds the wall thickness by 10 centimeters - 5 centimeters on each side.
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about base plates.
The beginning of the robot begins in the preparation of the construction site and materials. To ensure the construction it is necessary:
Clear the site from debris.
Plant soil should be removed to a depth of 15-20 cm and two to three meters to the sides of the construction site.
Carry out the alignment of the construction site, check the flatness of the site. For this, use the construction level, installed on the board, a length of about two meters.
If clay soil is found under a cut of fertile soil, then a sandy-gravel pillow should be equipped.
After the site is ready, you can proceed to construction.
The essence of the work lies in the fact that the installation of the supports is transferred from the drawing to the building site.
Before the breakdown of the base, along the perimeter of the future construction, at a distance of one or two meters from it, a so-called obnite is made. These are ordinary posts, on which wooden planks are filled. Between the slats, the rope is stretched, which will mark the construction site.