The calculation of the heating of a private house is one of the important tasks during its construction or major repairs. Do it better at the planning stage. Some help in the calculations can have a special online calculator. There are many calculators for calculating fuel consumption, furnace power, ventilation system, chimney cross-section, pump-mixing unit performance of a “warm floor” and others. However, it should be taken into account that all of them show only an approximate result, since only the simplest configurations can calculate. In fact, when calculating the heating it is necessary to take into account a lot of additional nuances. This must be done in order to correctly calculate the costs for the entire heating system and in the future not to suffer from the cold in the house or, on the contrary, its surplus and, consequently, excess fuel costs.
To calculate the heating of a private house, it is necessary to calculate the power of the heating boiler, decide on the number and placement of radiators, take into account a number of factors from the weather to the insulation and the material of the pipes and the boiler.
Keep in mind that this process will depend on the comfort of living in the house, since your calculations will directly affect the quality of heating. In addition, these calculations are the basis of the budgeted budget for the installation and further operation of the entire heating system. It is at this stage that you will have to decide how much money you will continue to spend on heating your home. Starting calculations it is important to remember about the climatic conditions in which your region is located and the conditions in which the house will be used.
The heating system is not only a furnace and batteries. It includes:
Sometimes you need an expansion tank.
Before calculating the power of the heating boiler, it is necessary to determine which type it will be used. Heating boilers have different efficiencies, and not only the level of heat transfer will depend on this choice, but also the financial component of the subsequent operation when choosing fuel:
Solid fuel boilers,
Liquid fuel boilers,
Combined electricity / solid fuel boiler.
When the choice of the type of boiler is made, it is necessary to determine its throughput. It is from this will depend on the functioning of the entire system. The calculation of the power of the water-heating boiler is made taking into account the amount of heat energy required per m3. The calculator can help calculate the volume of heated rooms:
bedroom: 9 m2 3 m = 27 m3,
bedroom: 12 m2 3 m = 36 m3,
bedroom: 15 m2 3 m = 45 m3,
living room: 25 m2 3 m = 75 m3,
corridor: 6 m2 3 m = 18 m3,
kitchen: 12 m2 3 m = 36 m3,
bathroom: 8 m2 3 m = 24 m3.
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Next, the results are summarized, and the total volume of the house is 261 m3. When calculating, the rooms and transitions in which it is not planned to install heating devices, for example, a corridor, a storeroom, or a hallway, are necessarily taken into account. This is done so that the heat from the radiators installed in the house is enough to heat the whole house.
When calculating the heating system, it is necessary to take into account the climate zone and the temperature outside in the winter period.
Take an arbitrary indicator for a region of 50 W / m3 and a house area of 261 m3, which is planned to be heated. The formula for calculating the power: 50 W 261 m3 = 13050 W. The result is multiplied by a factor of 1.2 and the boiler power is calculated - 15.6 kW. The ratio allows you to add 20% of the reserve capacity of the boiler. It will allow the boiler to operate in the savings mode, avoiding special overloads.
The coefficient correction for the climatic conditions of the regions varies from 0.7 in the southern regions of Russia to 2.0 in the northern regions. The coefficient of 1.2 is used in the central part of Russia.
Here is another formula used by online calculators:
To get a preliminary result of the required boiler power, you can multiply the area of the room by the climatic coefficient and, the result, divided by 10.
An example of a formula for calculating the power of a heating boiler for a house of 120 m2 in the northern region of Russia:
Nk = 120 * 2.0 / 10 = 24 kW
This can be interesting ! In the article on the following link read about what you need to know for heating a private house.
It is not enough to know how to calculate the power of the boiler, you must also choose the right pipes. Now the market offers several types of pipes for heating from different materials:
polypropylene (with and without reinforcement),
of these types of their own nuances that should be considered when developing and calculating the heating of a private house:
Steel pipes in use are universal and withstand pressures up to 25 atmospheres, but have a significant drawback - they rust and have a certain period of operation. In addition, have difficulty installing.
Pipes made of polypropylene, composite metal-plastic and cross-linked polyethylene are easy to install and, due to their weight, can be used on thin walls. The advantage of such pipes is that they are not susceptible to rust, rotting and do not react to bacteria. An important indicator - they do not expand from heat and are not deformed in the cold. Maintain a constant temperature of up to 90 degrees and a short-term increase to 110 degrees Celsius.
Copper pipes are distinguished by high price and increased complexity during installation, but they compete in strength with plastic pipes, are not subject to rust and are considered the best option. In addition, copper is plastic, conducts heat well and keeps the water temperature in pipes ranging from -200 to 250 degrees Celsius. This ability of copper will protect the system from possible defrosting, which is very important in the conditions of Siberia and the northern regions.
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about heating a private house with electricity.
When calculating the number of necessary radiators, one should take into account what material they are made of. The market now offers three types of metal radiators:
Bimetallic alloy ,
They all have their own characteristics. Cast iron and aluminum have the same heat transfer rate, but at the same time, aluminum cools down quickly, and cast iron heats up slowly, but retains heat for a long time. Bimetallic radiators heat up quickly, but cool down much more slowly than aluminum.
When calculating the number of radiators, you should also consider other nuances:
thermal insulation of the floor and walls helps to keep up to 35% of heat,
the corner room is cooler than others and requires more radiators,
the use of double-glazed windows on windows saves 15% of heat energy,
“leaves” through the roof up to 25% of heat.
In accordance with the norms of SNiP, for heating 1 m3 requires 100 watts of heat. Therefore, 50 m3 will require 5000 watts. If a bimetallic device allocates 120 W to 8 sections, then using a simple calculator, we assume: 5000: 120 = 41.6. After rounding up, we get 42 radiators.
However, in a private house, the temperature is regulated independently. It is believed that one battery generates 150 watts of heat. We recalculate and get 5000: 150 = 33.3. That is, you need 34 radiators.
You can use the approximate formula for calculating radiator sections:
N * = S / P * 100
The icon (*) indicates that the fractional part is rounded according to the general mathematical rules, N - number of sections, S - area of the room in m2, and P - heat output of 1 section in watts.
An example of how to calculate heating in a private house using an online calculator in this video:
It might be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the heating system of a two-story house.
The installation and calculation of the heating system in a private house is the main component of the conditions for comfortable living in it. Therefore, the calculation of heating in a private house should be approached with special care, given the many related nuances and factors.
The calculator will help you if you need to quickly and averagely compare different construction technologies. In other cases, it is better to contact a specialist who will correctly carry out the calculations, correctly process the results and take into account all errors.
No program can cope with this task, because it contains only general formulas, and the heating calculators of a private house and the tables offered on the Internet serve only to facilitate calculations and cannot guarantee accuracy. For accurate correct calculations, it is worthwhile to entrust this work to specialists, who will be able to take into account all the wishes, capabilities and technical indicators of the selected materials and devices.