In monolithic houses, by definition, all structural elements of the structure are fully constructed by pouring concrete mix into the formwork, inside of which a reinforcing frame is mounted. Their strength and reliability is one of the highest, therefore many projects of multi-family and private houses are developed on the basis of this technology. There are two types of monolithic housing construction: with external walls of monolithic reinforced concrete and monolithic brick. Consider maybe a monolithic house, projects and prices for example, and features of construction in our article.
Construction of a monolithic house
The classical technology is that all exterior walls ( and part of the internal) are made of monolithic. They perform carrier functions and are responsible for the strength of the structure. In fact, the walls are a continuation of the monolithic basement (slab, tape or combined) without seams and gaps.
High-rise buildings that meet this definition are practically not built. The main reasons are high labor intensity and low thermal resistance of the walls. Therefore, the builders switched to the technology of brick-monolithic housing construction.
In the construction of monolithic cottages classic technology is still used. But more often in a modified form, when simultaneously with the filling of the walls they are heated. There are two methods:
Fixed formwork. There are two types: block and panel. It is more often made of expanded polystyrene, but also found from fibrolite and chip-cement slabs. After pouring concrete, it remains in the structure and provides the required level of thermal protection of the building.
This is how the fixed formwork
looks like Tilt-Up technology. During the creation of the reinforcing cage, foam plates are laid inside. After pouring a kind of sandwich is obtained, in which the outer layers of concrete.
Tilt-Up-made slab in the section
If the concrete mix passes without bookmarks foam and using removable formwork, the insulation is carried out at the stage of finishing the outer walls.
Monolith-frame or monolith-brick houses essentially have the same technology. It is based on the arrangement directly on the site of the monolithic reinforced concrete frame, and the external walls (and internal inter-room partitions) are made either from building blocks or from bricks.
This is a universal technology of monolithic housing construction, which is used in the construction of buildings for any purpose - from private cottages to commercial or industrial buildings.
They build such monolithic houses using concreting technology with removable reusable formwork: collapsible, lifting-sliding or sliding. It reduces construction costs, and the last two options reduce the time for installation and demolition work.
Walling of the monolithic frame house
When erecting external walls, the frame of the frame is filled with the following materials:
slit ordinary brick;
foam concrete building blocks;
gas silicate blocks.
Aerated concrete blocks with density D500-D900 are used for walls. They belong to structural heat-insulating materials that have sufficient strength for self-supporting walls and low thermal conductivity. For example, external walls of a foam-concrete or gas-silicate block with a thickness of 40 cm do not require additional insulation - taking into account exterior and interior decoration, they fully meet the requirements of modern standards for thermal protection of buildings. And with a smaller wall thickness a layer of foam or mineral wool in the composition of the "wet" or hinged facade will be small.
Clearly about the technology of monolithic houses in the video:
If you count only on the insulating properties of building materials to meet the requirements of the new SNiP 23-02-2003 for thermal protection of buildings, the wall thickness should be as follows:
of monolithic reinforced concrete - more than 5 m;
from ordinary full-bodied brick - 2 m;
from a log (in mezhventsovom connection) or a bar - 0. 5 m;
from foam or gas concrete - 0. 4-0. 45 m.
Wall thickness of different materials with the same heat loss
on our site you can find contacts of construction companies that offer the service of designing houses. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
If we talk about the equivalent thickness of popular insulation, it looks like this:
expanded polystyrene - 12 cm;
mineral wool - 18 cm
Of course, the numbers are average - each region has its own climatic features, and the density of materials also affects the thermal conductivity, but these figures give a general picture. Therefore, the warmest house will be the one whose walls are completely built of blocks of cellular concrete not less than 40 cm thick. The strength and reliability of such walls is low and they have to be reinforced additionally every 5-6 rows. But even with this condition, the number of floors in such a house is limited.
The monolithic frame house is almost as good as monolithic in construction, and foam concrete in thermal protection. If you do not consider the common causes of heat loss of any building (roof, windows, doors), then they are left with the only "weak point" - the thermal conductivity of the monolithic frame of a private house itself.
And insulation is important for houses made of any materials - brick, wood, or monolithic reinforced concrete. The question is only in the thickness of the additional layer and in the material of thermal insulation.
Usually it is necessary to warm the house with any materials
As already mentioned The advantages of a classic monolithic building include high strength and durability.
As a consequence of high strength, seismic resistance can be added to the list of advantages of monolithic houses. In conditions when the panel house "will develop", monolithic will not collapse. And in order to provide the same performance as a monolith, the walls of a brick building must have a greater thickness and high quality of masonry mortar.
According to the builders themselves, the shrinkage process with the same nature of the soil at a monolithic house is much faster than other stone structures - about 1 year. At the panel this process lasts 2-3 years, at the brick - up to 5 years.
Clearly about the advantages and disadvantages of monolithic houses in the video:
The cost of building a foundation and walls "under the roof" in in terms of square meter, a monolithic house has more than a panel house, but less than a brick house.
The following are considered disadvantages:
high labor intensity;
a significant amount of concreting and high metal consumption;
difficult organization of work on the continuous delivery of concrete to the object (so that the pouring takes place without cold joints);
low sound insulation (especially structural noise).
Estimated cost of building and operating houses built using different technologies
In their pure form, monolithic walls have low thermal insulation, but in low-rise housing construction this problem is solved even at the construction stage by using fixed formwork.
A monolithic brick house has its pros and cons in its own way.
A modern monolithic-frame house also has pros and cons. Retaining the strength of monolithic buildings, brick-monolithic houses have an extensive list of advantages compared with them:
a decrease in the volume of concreting and metal consumption significantly reduces construction costs;
the use of lightweight concrete building blocks reduces the weight of the structure and the load on the ground, which saves on the construction of the foundation; opportunity to start finishing work earlier;
part n Loadings for thermal protection of the building take on the building materials of the external walls, which reduces the cost of house insulation during the facade;
The external walls of the building blocks better protect the room from street noise.
As a summary, monolithic and frame houses benefit from monolithic and brick ones in terms of the cost per square meter and the terms of commissioning.
And the monolithic frame buildings have less load-bearing walls, which expands the possibilities of redevelopment
This can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about projects of houses with stove heating.
On this account there is an unequivocal assessment of specialists in the current state of the primary market.
Apartments in panel houses are cheaper, and they are bought with a limited family budget, when the cost per square meter of housing comes first.
Such houses have low sound insulation, their layout is usually tied to the “template” of the project and rarely gives in to changes within the framework of the current local legislation even inside one apartment (not to mention the possibility of combining two adjacent apartments).
The cost per square meter of housing for monolithic-frame houses is higher than that of panel houses, but those with reliability and durability in the first place choose them.And this is even taking into account the fact that apartments with turnkey monolithic construction are usually not sold - they go without interior partitions and interior decoration. Although this option allows the homeowner to choose their layout and materials for decoration, without spending time on the dismantling of partitions and the coordination of reconstruction.
Brick apartment buildings are rarely built. In the city, such technology is usually resorted to in the event that it is necessary to preserve the single architectural appearance of the development area. In the suburbs - this is brick townhouses. This type of houses refers to the elite, and apartments in them will cost more than in monolithic-frame.
Townhouse within the city
As such rating of the best projects monolithic low-rise houses there. Each region has its own companies specializing in this type of construction. They offer several standard projects, as well as the opportunity to order the development of a complete set of documents and the construction of a monolithic house according to individual customer requirements.
Typically, typical projects have one or two floors, in some cases with a mansard.
Project of a one-story monolithic house
Two-story monolithic house
Monolithic house with an attic
And as an additional option, there is a garage for one or two cars (sometimes a carport instead). The useful area of such projects lies in the range from 100 m² to 500 m².
Project of a house with a garage
The price of a square meter depends on many conditions. Including, the remoteness of the object from the base of the construction organization, the terrain, the availability of electricity and clean water on the site.
A modern monolithic house with a two-car garage
There is also a different approach to include certain types of work in the base project cost. For example, you may be asked to choose a house or cottage from monolithic reinforced concrete in the Moscow region, from several ready-made projects at a price of 19,000 rubles. for 1 m². At the same time, the cost of the project itself with the complete set of documentation is included in the basic version, but part of the work and services that are available during the turnkey construction are not included:
internal and external finishing works;
arrangement of the blind area and basement;
removal of seized soil at the stage of the zero cycle;
removal of construction waste upon completion;
installation of fireplaces, terraces and balconies;
payments of electricity and water used during construction.
What a turnkey monolithic house project looks like - in the video:
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the projects of houses from bar 6 to 9.
The decorative possibilities of a monolithic low-rise building depend only on the choice of finishing materials. Therefore, a monolithic or monolith-brick house can get any kind - a brick mansion, and a log house from a rounded log.