The scientific definition of a fountain sounds like this: it is a hydraulic structure in which water masses move in a closed or open contour. If we talk about fountains erected in suburban areas, these are small architectural structures of various shapes, which are built flush with the ground surface on the site or in the form of a superstructure above it. In this article we will not talk about the forms and design content, we will be interested in the construction of the fountain, what parts and assemblies it consists of, what you need to pay attention to when solving the problem of building a hydraulic structure.
The fountain consists of two parts: the caisson and fountain bowls. The first is the reservoir where water accumulates, which is used to move and create a water column. The volume of the caisson is determined by the required amount of water. They make it from different materials. In the market it is represented by containers made of concrete, metal, plastic, butyl rubber film and others. Installation of the caisson and its connection to the fountain complex is a very complicated process, therefore specialized organizations are involved in this.
Fountain thicket is a container that is constructed using different technologies. The choice here is small: a concrete structure, steel, plastic or composite materials. If the budget for the construction of the fountain is large, then the thicket can be built from marble, bronze and other expensive materials.
It should be noted that water movement in the fountain structure is The most important criterion for the effective operation of a hydraulic structure. Therefore, this issue should be approached from the professional side. In general, the outflow of water, that is, the state of the fountain itself, depends mainly on the nozzle, from which water will flow under pressure. There is a wide choice, where often used - a cascade or a bell, as the most complex, or a streamlet or a spring, as the simplest.
But the principle of operation of the fountain depends on one of the most important element - the drive, it is the pump installation. It is the pump that creates pressure inside the water movement system. And the greater the pressure, the stronger the water will be pushed out of the nozzle, the higher it will take off above the surface of the water surface.
It should be noted that to create pressure inside the system you can use conventional pumps (even domestic), for example, submersible type "Kid" or "Streamlet", or more complex pumping units such as surface. The first option is simple, but with little performance and pressure. At the same time submersible pumps are easy to install. That is, they are simply immersed in water (partially or completely) in a well or open water.
The second option requires more careful treatment. First, the pump is selected for the desired volume of pumped water and pressure. Secondly, a separate room or niche near the caisson is being constructed for it. Therefore, the choice of the second option will lead to a greater investment of funds. But it is he who makes it possible to implement fairly complex solutions.
So, summarize the section - the main parts of the fountain. It consists of a caisson, in which they accumulate the required amount of water, a pump and a nozzle, which forms the outflow of water masses. All the rest is just a decorative filling of the fountain design.
works The caisson is filled first. Filling can be done in different ways from different sources: open water, centralized water supply, a well or a well. In this case, any household pump is used for filling. The greater its performance, the faster the caisson will be filled with water.
The pool and the caisson are interconnected by two pipes: the water supply and the return pipe, through which the water flows by gravity back into the caisson. In the supply circuit is mounted pump that provides movement of water masses. There is another pipe set in the caisson, which connects it to the sewer system. It is necessary to drain the water for the winter when the fountain is preserved.
It is clear that all pipe layouts are supplied with shut-off valve elements. Two of them are especially important: before and after pumping equipment. This is usually either valves or ball valves. Their purpose is to cut off the water supply if it is necessary to repair the pump itself or replace it with a new one.
That is, the scheme of the fountain device is quite simple: these are two tanks connected to each other by two pipes, one of which has a pump installed.
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The above-described device is quite complex. Usually it is used for the construction of fountains with a complex architectural form, where a large amount of water is used. At the cottages can do with small cash investments. Moreover, manufacturers today offer plastic thickets for water of different decorative designs. They are completely sealed, the main thing - to properly install.
In the fountains of this type special pumps are used, but submersible pumps of the household type are also possible. Everything will depend on the volume of the bowl used. The easiest version of the installation is shown in the photo below. Please note that the pump is installed at the bottom of the pool, and the pipe is held up from it, at the end of which a nozzle is installed. That is, the pump pumps water, which the thicket of the fountain is filled with. She immediately gets back to the tank. That is, there are practically no losses, and there is no need to install a caisson or other container next to it.
We add that several circuits can be retracted from the pump, closing them on different types of water outflow devices. The same photo shows how one pump installed at the bottom of the fountain bowl supplies three spout sources with water.
used on summer cottages. It is inexpensive, it is reliable, because pumps of the submersible type are manufactured according to the technology that ensures 100% tightness of the equipment. That is, such pumping units withstand high water pressure, plus - they are made of materials that do not corrode: stainless steel, plastic.
We add that today manufacturers offer a complete set of equipment for the fountain, which includes a pump, a water supply regulator, and nozzles. In the passport of the product must indicate the maximum water pressure, which you can choose the height of the rising water masses.
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There are proposals for the voltage consumed. That is, some models of pumping equipment operate only from the mains with a voltage of 220 volts, others from 12 or 24 volts. And this is an important selection criterion. For example, for spray fountains it is better to install pumps with high pressure, but with a small capacity, working with a voltage of 220V. And for hydraulic structures with a spout of water in the form of a cascade or waterfall, it is better to install devices operating from low voltage. But their pressure should be low and their productivity should be high.
The video describes the fountain pumps of the Sprut model:
Filter water even in small the size of the fountain is a must. Manufacturers offer a huge range of filters that connect to the pumping device. These can be simple mesh designs mounted on the pump intake manifold. Or a more complex structure that connects to the pumping unit through pipes or hoses. The task of such a filter is not only to trash debris, but also fine sand.
Some filter models perform biological water purification. Today, in shops you can buy installations that clean water with ultraviolet light, turning it almost into a drinking one. That is, scientific and technical progress in terms of cleaning water masses has reached quite high altitudes. The case again rests on the possibility of the owner of the fountain, that is, how much money he is willing to invest in a hydraulic structure.
This may be interesting! In the article on the following link read about 2 types of fountains for home and garden.
What to look for when buying a fountain pump:
It is better to buy a complete set with nozzles , with hoses , with pressure regulator , sprayers and other small things.
The pump must be made from materials that do not corrode .
Submersible pumps are more expensive than surface .
Well, if the package includes: a tee that will help distribute the water flow to two circuits, the stop valve mounted on the supply circuit, transition branch pipe . With the help of the latter, it becomes possible to change the pressure on the delivery circuit.
Purchase spray heads , equipped with LEDs.
In the video, a specialist talks about fountain pumps, water filtration systems, how it all connects to each other:
It may be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the fountains for the pond in the country: what to choose - types and prices, examples in the photo.
In fact, the fountain is a simple structure. But the layout of the nodes requires a process of professional attitude. This is especially true of hydraulic structures with a large volume bowl. Here you can not do without the caisson and the installation of a pump unit of high power. But even a small fountain should not be built independently. After all, the high quality of the final result always depends on the qualifications of the manufacturer. And this is regardless of what design you want to install or mount.