The dream of many city dwellers is the presence of a summer cottage, which can be immediately installed in a construction site. When drafting a building, the construction of the roof of a private house is important. Comfort in the future house depends on the choice of its form, the correct calculations in the design and compliance with the technology of work.
The quality of the roof and roofing materials directly affect the comfort of living and the life of the house
Mounted roofing system can have several varieties. The roof structure of a private house is:
Odnoskatnaya . Depending on the coating material, has a slope in one direction up to 35 °. It is rarely used for the equipment of a residential house, since it excludes the possibility of having a full-fledged attic room. Most often installed on secondary suburban buildings: garage, porch, greenhouse, shed.
Duplex . Easy to install and withstand significant external loads. It has two side slopes that form triangular gables at the ends. The length of the slopes can be changed, depending on the need. The shape of the gables and the volume in the attic will also change.
Duplex polyline . The slope of the cover on each side of the ridge consists of two parts, which have a different angle of inclination relative to each other and an attic floor. The most popular type of coating that allows you to fully use the attic or equip the attic floor.
Three or chetyrehskatnaya . The construction of the roof of a private house of such a plan is the union of ramps at the top point, they may have different lengths and angles of inclination. The complex shape and originality of the device gave it a second name - asymmetrical.
Common forms of roofs of private houses
Half-hinged . Variety gable design. On each pediment of the truss system a hip chute is made.
Hip . Ramps in the shape of a trapezoid are located on both sides of the long roof. Triangular ramps are installed on both sides of the short roof.
Multi-Skid or Gable . Consists of several types of rays, combined into one design. It is performed as a single flooring truss system of complex structural forms.
Metal or natural tile, profile flooring, ondulin, slate or a double-glazed window can be used as a material for sheltering a house.
The roof structure of a glass house can be of any of the listed types. Installation of glass is possible around the perimeter of the roof or on its individual elements.
The choice of the type of roof and its coverage depends largely on the climatic conditions of the area in which the house is located, the wishes and financial capabilities of the host.
Before you build the roof of a house, you must collect the required elements, each of which has its own purpose.
Each detail has its own purpose and technological requirements.
On our website you can find contacts of construction companies that offer design services and roof repair. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
The roof structure of a private house consists of the following elements:
Reinforcement belt . This is a reinforced concrete form, mounted around the perimeter of the wall. It is intended for leveling the surface of walls and fastening the wooden elements of the truss system to the walls of the building.
Mauerlat . It is the basis for the trussing system of the building and serves for attaching the rafters to evenly distribute the load on the walls of the building.
The rafter system . Bearing truss for mounting roofing, heat and waterproofing material, some communication lines. It includes the following elements:
rafters is the main structural element from which the truss structure is made;
runs are components of the system by which the rafters are interconnected.Additional rigidity of the structure is attached;
lathing - performed in two versions: external and internal (necessary for creating a ventilated space, fixing heat and moisture insulators, cladding material);
ridge - the upper point of the connection of the rafters, the place where the air escapes from the ventilated space;
supports and struts - structural parts designed to strengthen the rafters and increase the rigidity of the structure;
General scheme of the roof structure
le Shade - log, located under the ridge on the ceiling, between the gables. Designed for mounting struts and vertical racks, gives rigidity and stability to the truss system;
tightening is a fastener with which the rafters are attached to the power plate and between themselves;
mare is a bar designed to extend the rafters and overhang of the roof;
overhang of the roof - the part of the roof system that extends beyond the walls (the main task of the overhang is to drain rainwater from the base of the building and the walls).
Insulating and waterproofing filler . Insulation is necessary to preserve heat in the building. The waterproofing film serves to prevent moisture from getting inside the house.
Roofing . It is necessary to protect the building from precipitation, giving the house an aesthetic and beautiful look.
To facilitate the calculations, it is recommended to make a frontal drawing of the roof in the section. For example, if you make a cut of a broken construction, you will get several geometric shapes. A rectangle will be located in the center of the cut, an equilateral triangle will be located above it, and right triangles will be located to the left and right. This will give the opportunity to calculate the amount of roofing space.
Complicated forms can always be divided into simple ones and calculate them all separately
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the roof of metal.
Next, the installation scheme for the roof of a private house is made, which should be carefully calculated for all the structural elements. The calculation of the roof is carried out by points:
Calculation of the slopes of the slopes . Depending on the type of roof, the angle of inclination will be 30-60 °.
Calculation of the length of ridge and side rafters . Performed by special formulas. The length depends on the height of the support and the angle of the roof.
For an example of the calculation, see the video:
Determination of the cross section of the rafters and their mounting step . The cross section of the rafter depends on the size of the truss foot. The longer the leg, the larger the cross section. The installation step depends on the section of the rafters. The larger the cross section, the wider the installation step of the rafter legs. When calculating the step, it is necessary to take into account that the rafters on the gables of the house are mounted first.
Calculation of the coverage area . Conducted in geometric shapes. For example, a gable roof consists of two rectangles. The area of each of them is calculated, after which the data are summarized. This allows you to calculate the required amount of roofing.
In the case of the hip roof, the areas of triangles and trapeziums
Determination of the amount of wood per crate . The thickness of the batten and the installation step depends on the roofing material. If soft roofing is used to cover, then it is recommended to make a continuous crate or plywood laying. If the roof is made of a hard or semi-rigid coating, the crate may be compacted or rare.
Calculation of the mass of the coating , insulation and waterproofing. This value is indicated on the packaging and is required to determine the total load.
Calculation of the total mass of materials used for the construction of the roof. The mass of all elements is summed: mauerlat, truss system, roofing, heat and waterproofing elements. This indicator should not exceed the carrying capacity of the walls of the building, taking into account the correction factor. For the calculation of wooden elements, the weight of a cubic meter of wood is used at a humidity of not more than 20%.
The basis for the construction is the roof project. It shows all the calculated data, the procedure and the installation scheme of the components of the roof structure.
Frontal projection of the roof drawing, plus a variant of the broken form
For the manufacture of a truss system, it is recommended to choose a base that has high strength, small own weight, resistance to moisture and temperature extremes.It is best suited for this coniferous trees, with a moisture content of up to 20%, which have no cracks, large knots and other shortcomings. The prepared wooden parts must be treated with a refractory mortar. To prevent fungal diseases, rotting or spoilage by rodents, the wood must be treated with an antiseptic substance.
It may be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the choice of the shape of the roof.
The principle of construction of a roofing structure consists in the gradual erection of its elements. To understand how to build the roof of a private house correctly, it is necessary to divide the construction process into several basic steps:
Equipment for the reinforced belt . Concrete mortar is poured into the prepared formwork, along the entire perimeter of the wall and along its width. In the process of solidification of the solution, iron pins are installed in it, on which the Mauerlat will be subsequently planted. The process of installing formwork, pouring concrete and setting it last for 5 to 7 days, depending on the size of the building. If the building is made of wood, then there is no need to install a reinforced belt.
Armored belt for the roof
Installation and fastening of the power plate . Laying the power plate is carried out through the holes on the pins in the reinforced belt. If metal pins have not been installed in advance, the mounting of the mauerlat to the walls should be carried out with the help of fixing brackets with a step of not more than 1. 0 meters. Laying the mauerlat is carried out along the entire length of the reinforcing belt and takes no more than 1-2 days.
Installation of the truss system . Work begins with the installation of rafters on the front walls. After that, the level and supporting posts, on which the ridge beam is mounted, are installed. Further, according to the project, internal rafters are installed. In the upper part, they are attached to the ridge beam, in the lower part - to the power plate with or without a hem. This most labor-intensive workload can take from 3 to 5 days.
Installation of heat and waterproofing . The work is carried out according to the scheme of the roofing pie, in which the installation of elements, starting from the inside, is carried out in the following sequence:
waterproofing layer ;
The presence of heat and waterproofing layers is mandatory for any roof. Their installation can last 2-3 days.
What is the structure of the roof of a private house: a scheme with the main layers:
Heat and waterproofing on the roof diagram
Roofing . Roofing work can take 2-3 days. It depends on the choice of roofing material. The larger its area, the faster its installation will be carried out.
If you do not take into account the reinforced belt, the construction of a house can take from 7 to 14 days.
You can see the whole process of roof installation in the video:
This can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the light under the roof.
In general, the construction of the roofing system is not a very difficult task, but it must be borne in mind that the future heat loss of your home will depend on the quality of the selection and installation of all elements. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to entrust the construction work to builders, and to use the obtained knowledge of the roof construction and installation steps to monitor the progress of work.
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