A private cottage that is not connected to the central heating main should be equipped with its own heating system. The autonomous heating system can be one-pipe or two-pipe. The first is more economical and easy to install, but less effective in operation. More popular now is the two-pipe heating system of a two-story house, the scheme of which involves the parallel connection of all radiators and the presence of a return riser.
The difference between one and two-pipe heating schemes
consists of the main structural details of the heating system private house:
set of radiators ;
heat carrier - most often water, but may be gaseous medium or non-freezing liquid, depending on the type of boiler;
boiler is electric, gas, solid fuel, diesel or kerosene;
heat pipe .
The system has a closed principle of operation, that is, first the coolant is heated by the boiler, is directed through the pipeline to the radiators, and then, cooled, returns to the heat source. A set of heaters with a heat pipe is called a heating circuit.
The listed elements will be enough to create a simple heating project for a two-story house. However, to increase the efficiency of autonomous heating, several more details are added to the scheme:
filter is needed to protect the boiler from clogging;
pump - for forced circulation of coolant through pipes;
safety devices (pressure relief valve, air vent, pressure gauge) are needed in systems with forced circulation;
the expansion tank - collects excess coolant when it overheats and expands in volume.
Thus, a heating scheme of a two-story house with forced circulation is obtained.
The heating system consists of a set of interconnected elements
There are a number of important requirements that must be considered when designing heating system.
In general, the heating project of a two-story house must comply with the architectural design of the building. The placement of the boiler requires certain structural design conditions of the room in which it will be located. Installation sites of radiators, as well as the paths of the pipeline should not violate the architectural rules for the arrangement of residential and technical premises. All this means that a qualified designer must design a heating system plan, based on the finished architectural design of the house.
During operation, the system should provide all internal and external surfaces with such a temperature as provided for by building codes and regulations (SNiP).
The system must be sufficiently economical to operate. If the heating of the house requires too much energy, you should contact the experts: perhaps some parts or assemblies will be unified.
The pipeline must have a minimum of twists and turns. If during its installation you need a large number of fasteners in various sizes, it means that the heating scheme is poorly designed.
You should always draw up and evaluate a preliminary scheme
When using the system should be reliable, safe, comfortable and silent. A good system allows homeowners to easily manage their heating appliances and, if necessary, to easily repair them.
The aesthetic side is also important. Radiators and pipes connected to them should have a neat attractive appearance. The less noticeable heating elements, the better.
The heating system of a building in which more than one level is to ensure the rise of heat carrier to the height of the floor. The heating connection scheme in a two-story private house can be with forced or natural circulation of coolant, with vertical or horizontal risers, with lower or upper wiring. And, of course, it can assume one-pipe or two-pipe wiring. Before choosing one or another type of scheme of the heating system, you need to familiarize yourself with the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.
On our website you can find contacts of construction companies that offer a house insulation service. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
A distinctive feature of the scheme with the natural circulation of the coolant is the placement of pipes of the system at a small angle to “help” the liquid to flow from one part of the scheme to another.
System with natural circulation of coolant - the pipes are at an angle
The natural or gravitational heating scheme of a two-story house functions due to the fact that liquid (coolant), expands when heated, and its density decreases. In a loose state, it rises along the upper vertical section into the radiators of the second floor. After that, in the cooled dense state, it is launched down the pipeline and enters the boiler for further heating.
Systems with natural circulation have their advantages :
easy installation and operation;
no noise that occurs when the pump is operated in forcing systems;
independence from power supply, but only if the boiler can work without electricity;
does not require frequent repairs, as it consists of simple elements.
The system with natural circulation has a very small radius of action and therefore is not suitable for homes with an area more than 100 square meters. meters
The system requires the installation of an expansion tank in the attic, which means that additional difficulties will arise in arranging heating in a residential underfloor - attic.
The expansion tank in this scheme should be installed at the top of the system
The rooms during heating with natural circulation are heated very slowly. From the moment the boiler starts up to full warming up of long-distance premises, it can take several hours.
In passage rooms in which radiators are not installed, it is necessary to warm the pipes, since there is a risk of liquid freezing in these places.
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the main points of installation of the heating system.
In the case of forced circulation, the wiring of heating from the boiler in a private two-story house is complemented by a circulation pump that drives the coolant through the pipes at the desired speed. This is a more modern and efficient way to heat a building.
The forced heating scheme of a two-story private house is endowed with such advantages :
fast heating of all rooms;
the ability to install pipes of minimum diameter;
details of the pipeline do not experience temperature fluctuations, and therefore serve for a long time;
you can adjust the temperature in the house;
you can adjust the temperature in each room separately.
The circulation pump is an obligatory part of the forced heating scheme
The system with forced circulation has its own minuses :
in a de-energized house the system with the pump will not work;
the pump consumes electricity, as a result the power consumption of the house increases ;
a running pump creates noise, which, however, with proper selection and installation of equipment, will be almost imperceptible.
A single-pipe heating system of a two-story house, the scheme of which involves alternately connecting radiators to the pipeline, has such advantages :
minimum cost of materials during installation;
the ability to lay pipes where it is needed, even in the most inaccessible places;
one pipe laid along the wall looks more aesthetic than two;
quick and easy installation.
Among the minuses there are such features:
if you need to repair or replace any part of the system, you need to stop it all;
heat is unevenly distributed; the closer the room is to the boiler room, the higher the temperature in the radiators.
If in one-pipe systems parallel connection of convectors is used, this scheme is called “Leningrad”
For more information about the Leningrad heating system, see the following video:
It might be interesting! In the article follow this link read about air heating.
The two-pipe scheme provides for two contours of pipes connected to radiators. In the first line there is hot water coming from the boiler by the shortest path to each radiator. In the second - the cooled coolant, which is returned to the boiler.Installation of heating in a two-story house on a two-pipe scheme is more complicated. However, the advantages of this option are so convincing that in most modern homes, heating is settled exactly according to the two-pipe principle. We list the main advantages of :
coolant of the same temperature gets into all radiators;
in the distant rooms is as warm as and in the near, so you do not need to increase the number of sections of radiators to equalize the temperature;
two-pipe systems are more convenient to control and regulate.
high consumption of tubes during installation;
the work of installing two pipe lines instead of one is quite expensive.
And a universal scheme can also be used - the coolant is moved by gravity here, and if necessary, the circulation engine
The radial heating scheme (below) is the most efficient of all existing ones, but for mounting a large number of pipes
To begin with, we will determine what kind of heating we need - with natural or forced circulation. If you have a large two-story cottage, then you definitely need to choose a system with a pump. But if you have a small dacha in a location that is remote from the central highways, you will probably want a gravity-free system that can work without electricity.
Now choose between the one-pipe and two-pipe option. If there are few rooms in the house, and the requirements for the aesthetics of the interior are high, it is better to install heating according to a one-pipe scheme. But if there are many rooms, and the thermal regime of individual rooms, for example, children’s, is of great importance to you, choose a two-pipe type of heating.
When making a final decision, it is important to remember that most homeowners prefer a two-pipe scheme with a compulsory principle of operation.
Obviously about the choice of a heating system for a house, see the video:
It might be interesting! In the article on the following link, read about what kind of heating is better in a private house.
Installing a heating system is a complex, time-consuming process, including design, equipment selection, installation of all elements. This should be done by specialists. The choice of the connection scheme must also be coordinated with the professionals, since without special qualification it is impossible to take into account all the factors and nuances.
The main thing in this matter is to strive for high-quality and reliable heating, and the efficiency of the installation should be relegated to the background. Save on the purchase of equipment is also not worth it. A good heating system will be expensive, but it will save you a lot of money later, during the operation.