In most existing houses (with the exception of semi-basement and basement premises), the mark of the clean floor of the lower floor, that is, the zero mark, is at least 40 cm from the ground surface. In order to get into the house, a staircase is required, over which it is logical to equip a shed or canopy to protect the extension and people from rain and snow. All these elements are combined into a single structure - a porch. The easiest way to build a porch for a country house from the tree, but other materials may be used. It does not matter that you decide to buy or build a porch to the house with your own hands, projects, photos will help you choose the right option.
Together with its functional purpose, the porch also serves as an additional decoration of the house. As a result, there is a fairly large number of types of structures, but basically the separation goes according to the type of placement of the porch relative to the house - it can be:
built-in; when under its placement some part of the house stands out in its middle or one of the corners, and the construction of the stairs and the platform rests on the common foundation of the house;
speakers; when it is located outside the perimeter of the outer walls, representing a separate extension; this design is based on its own base; in some cases, it can rely on metal or reinforced concrete consoles specially arranged in the foundation for the construction of a house.
Examples of various options for manufacturing a porch on video:
Before you build a porch in a wooden house, first of all, you need to decide on what it is best to do, because the design and material of which the porch is made must correspond to the appearance of the facade of the house. Of course, a wooden porch is best suited for a wooden house, but if brick cladding is used or the basement is lined with stone, then the appropriate porch will fit - brick or stone. The most commonly used materials for the construction of porches:
brick, cinder block or massive stone blocks;
metal (for construction of supporting frames).
A porch staircase usually rests on a square or rectangular platform, which is flush with the floors of the house. The site can be simple with a minimum area of 2 to 4 m² or extended and have additional space for placing flowers or creating a small outdoor resting place.
Sometimes at the top of the basement of a summer house a gallery is arranged, which can adjoin the house from one side or gird it from several sides. The porch can be part of such a gallery. If the porch has more than three steps, be sure to arrange the railing, which passes into the fence area.
The steps of the porch can adjoin the site:
on one side (parallel to the facade);
on two sides (perpendicular front);
from three sides (combining the 2 previous options); A special case is the semicircular steps and the playground.
The porch can be open or closed. The open has only light railings. Closed has a protection installed throughout its height from the floor to the visor. It can be made both solid and in the form of glazing. Which of these types is preferable depends on the taste of the owner and the design project of the country house.
On the one hand, the glazed porch provides additional protection from the wind, rain, heat loss, protects the design of steps and grounds from adverse atmospheric influences, prevents the intruders from entering the house. On the other hand, it requires additional costs for the glazing unit, an additional door, and gratings.
In our catalog, you can familiarize yourself with the most popular companies, rendering in suburban construction and arrangement of the site, among the low-rise Country houses represented at the exhibition.
When the porch area is extended and you plan to use it for recreation, glazing will greatly interfere with unity with nature. In this case, it is better to choose an open-type porch. Also, an open-type porch sometimes looks more preferable than an aesthetically-closed one, especially if the glazing is made of plastic windows.
If the porch is made for a wooden house, then it is logical to use wood as a material.In this case, the supporting frame is made of wooden elements, which are suitable as square or rectangular straight bars with a minimum width of 50 mm (50 x 50, 100 x 50, 100 x 100). In the case of a kosurny type, it is possible to take three stitched boards as an inclined beam, at least 30 mm thick (the total width of the kosour will be about 90 mm).
If the country house is built of chopped logs, its porch can be arranged in the same style. Such a chopped log porch will have log walls and steps from the board. Depending on the span (width of the stairs), the board thickness for the horizontal part of the step (tread) should be chosen so that it is not unsteady and does not bend under a load of less than 150 kg. This can be checked by placing three fifty-kilogram bags of cement in the middle of it one upon the other.
The diameter of the logs must correspond to the diameter of the logs from which the house was cut. The basis for the side walls can serve as concrete posts buried in the ground below the depth of frost penetration and protruding above the surface to a height of 15-20 cm. The length of the log should coincide with the length of the horizontal projection of the platform and the ladder. The logs are stacked on top of one another to the required height. If the porch is erected simultaneously with the house, its ends facing the wall can be cut into it.
Otherwise, they are fastened to the wall and between themselves from the inside with the help of corners, brackets, strips, etc. After laying and fixing the logs, stepping back from the wall for the length of the platform, from above start cutting down the vertical and horizontal sections for future treads and risers of the stairs. Such a plan to buy a porch for a country house made of metal is unlikely to turn out ready-made. In most cases, this work is done on order and individually.
It may be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the glazing of the porch of the house in the cottage or in the country.
If there is a bath with a floor above the ground on the site, you can also enter it with a porch. To make such a porch from a bar for a bath would be the best option. It is possible to make a frame with rectangular or oblique (kosura) elements from a bar. It is also easy to fold the side walls of the timber and cut places for the supports of the steps in them.
Treads and wooden stair risers can be fixed on the horizontal and vertical elements of the frame. Such a system often requires side facing and protection, as a result of which an internal closed cavity is formed under the steps. It is necessary to provide access to such a cavity for its regular cleaning and inspection of the technical condition of the structures.
Stairs are also installed on special inclined beams - kosouri. The kosoura can be made of metal rolling beams - I-beams, channels, and of wood.
It is not recommended to use solid bars or logs as kosour. It is better if kosouri will be made of 2-3 boards, sewn together with screws or nails. This design is more resistant to bending stresses arising in an inclined beam.
On one side, the construction of stairs on kosoura rests on a platform with bearing horizontal support beams, which must also be metal or wooden. The beams, in turn, are supported by walls.
Vertical supports are arranged in the junction area of the kowers and beams. Such supports should have their own bearing pads and can be made of brick in the form of columns with dimensions of 380 x 380 mm (1. 5 bricks) or metal pipes with a diameter of 150-200 mm. From the opposite side, the platform beams are supported on the wall with anchor bolts or brackets. The design on the kosourah is most often done open to the bottom with the absence of a continuous covering under the steps.
Before use, all wooden elements must be soaked with antiseptic for protection from rotting and mold, as well as fire retardants for fire safety. Metal parts are treated with means of preventing corrosion, and also protected with paint and varnish coatings, including bituminous varnish (black), minium (red-brown) or chromium oxide (green) on natural drying oil.
A few more options for the stairs in the video:
The upper side adjoins wall of the house, and the bottom rests on the ground. To prevent damage to materials, depending on the weight of the stairs, its lower part is installed on a supporting platform or a full-fledged foundation.
Lightweight porches in the form of a spatial metal frame can be built from a rolling angle sheathed with a plank of wood using a baseless scheme, relying with one side on the system of anchor bolts installed in the wall of a house and on the other hand to the supporting platform.
To prepare such a platform, you need to open a pit in the ground with a width corresponding to two widths of treads of a ladder. Its length should not be less than the width of the flight of stairs, and the depth should be 20–25 cm from the ground surface.
This pit should be filled with rubble in layers no more than 5 cm thick with layer-by-layer tamping. After the filling of rubble, a flat asphalt concrete ground is arranged on top.
Another way to build a staircase porch in a private house, its steps and platforms - the use of monolithic reinforced concrete. After installing the inclined and horizontal beams, the formwork for each of the steps, starting from the first, is sequentially placed and poured with concrete of class B20-B25, (M250-M300). In this case, kosouri can be hidden in the body of concrete.
The reinforcement of the step itself is carried out in an inclined lower part with a grid with cell sizes of not more than 12 x 12 cm made of rods with a diameter of not less than 10 mm. The riser is reinforced with the same net (vertical part). In the upper horizontal part there should be a grid with cells 10 x 10 cm of reinforcement with a diameter of 6 mm. Between the reinforcement and the outer surface of the product should be provided with a protective layer of concrete, more than 1 cm thick.
The armature is interconnected exclusively by knitting wire without using welding, so as not to disturb the molecular bonds in the metal.
A brick, a cinder block or blocks of natural stone are still used as a base for the steps. Sloping walls are made of brick or stone with supporting horizontal and vertical sections in the upper part, which coincide with the dimensions of the treads (horizontal parts) and risers (vertical parts) of the steps. For such a device of steps it is necessary to use strip foundations with laying the sole below the depth of soil freezing (1.5-2.0 m). The steps themselves can be made of wood or reinforced concrete.
It might be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the roof over the porch.
It is good if the foundation of the porch is performed simultaneously with the foundation of the house. It is not recommended to firmly tie the foundation of the protruding porch to the foundation of the house, since with uneven deformations of the soil foundation, as a result of unequal loads in the steps and the site, defects in the form of distortions and cracks may appear.
Porch Visors can differ in several parameters:
in geometric form;
in method fixing on the facade.
Visors are single-slope, double-slope, in the form of a profile that represents the surface of a segment of a ball or an ellipse, cut in diameter into 4 parts. The gable peaks triangular or arched in its central part form a small pediment.
It is better to choose a sloping visor for a porch with steps perpendicular to the facade, and for steps installed parallel to the facade - a gable.
According to the coating material, the visors can be:
metal - made from roofing galvanized sheet or profiled flooring; durable plastic of different colors and profiles - smooth, wavy, etc.; The color of plastic can vary from transparent to a wide variety of colors, from which it is easy to choose a hue to match the facade of a house;
The visors on the facade are fixed with wall-mounted anchor bolts.
The external visors of the porch are usually in the corners adjacent to the facade based on metal or wooden triangular brackets, and in the corners furthest from the facade the pillars, which are wooden, metal or very rarely brick. In addition to supporting supports, they also perform a decorative function, since they can be decorated and decorated in a variety of ways.
There are porches whose visor is the overlap of an upper balcony decorated in common with a porch style.
Wood is a very convenient and easily processed material, so it can be used for the freest design solutions for a wooden house. A wooden porch can be decorated with various carved elements of cornices and pediments. Wood can be used to make turned and carved pillars, supporting the visor and balusters (vertical railing rails), as well as the railings themselves. An interesting porch for a wooden house will turn out if you use wicker mats of reeds, wicker or wicker for fencing. Practically for any building, a porch for a country house made of metal is suitable; to buy in this version both a classic design without frills and beautiful products with hand-forged fences with a vegetable or abstract ornament.
A selection of beautiful and original solutions in the video:
And a few examples in the photo:
How to be kr ltsu your home depends on your same financial means, taste, ability to listen to the advice of designers, architects and designers. If there is such an opportunity, it is worth trying to model the house together with the porch in any computer design program. This approach makes it possible to most consciously choose the appropriate type of porch and the materials from which it will be made.