If your cottage is at least slightly elevated above ground level or has two or more floors in it, then the street staircase to the house is one of the essential elements of its design. There are many criteria for choosing outdoor stairs. At a minimum, they are made from different materials - metal, wood or concrete, and therefore they are designed according to other principles.
In addition, a street staircase is not necessarily just a separate entrance For example, if the house has several floors, the project should include a fire escape.
There are several criteria that need to be reviewed one by one in order to choose a suitable staircase:
The most common porch is so familiar element of the design that it is often not even perceived as a ladder. However, the porch can be of different heights, so if there are steps here, then it would be more correct to say “porch with stairs”.
Stationary external stairs leading to the second floor, attic or attic. It is their most often mean when they talk about outdoor stairs.
Fire - must be installed in buildings with a height of 10 meters or more. In fact, these are the same stationary ladders, but having certain design requirements, therefore, it is customary to single them out into a separate category. If stationary stairs require regular use, firefighters, first of all, are installed in case of evacuation or early access to the premises during a fire. However, no one forbids the use of a fire escape for other needs, if at the same time there is free access to it.
Marching - having a span in the structure. This is the most frequent variant of execution (if the stairs are high, then you can see two or three marches with platforms between them).
Spiral (spiral) stairs. They are used when places are not as many as we would like (they are easy to distinguish, these are usually interesting “twisted” constructions).
Ladders at the bridge . Despite the complex name, it simply means “bolted” - the steps in this case are individually fastened to the wall.
Attached or telescopic (lifting) . With the spread of attic floors are used extremely rarely, mainly for access to the unexploited attic. But in fact it is also an outdoor staircase for the house.
Selecting the design you need is simple - if not space, then we need the second option, otherwise we evaluate the convenience and costs.
Bolts look very nice, but they can be installed only if the wall can withstand the additional load, the size of which is calculated depending on the specific project of the stairs. Plus, you need to take into account the complexity of installation.
If you look for a compromise, then this is a wooden mid-flight ladder. Most often they are made on so-called kosouras.
For reference! Cross-chests are boards in which there are cuts for installing steps. A typical sign of the kosour is when you can see the side saw pattern with all the steps on the side.
It takes time to make the marching stairs on kosoura, but this design looks neat and beautiful. Intermediate marches are also made of boards or, as an option, of shields.
Wood . Such a ladder is quite inexpensive in execution, but at the same time it is necessary to cover it with antiseptic and process (paint) waterproof solution. In addition, even with the fulfillment of all the rules, the wooden staircase is not very durable: it will be necessary to repair the first steps in 5-10 years.
Metal . It can be very beautiful performance, especially if you forked to purchase additional solutions with glass or forging. However, with the presence of hand-made elements, the terms of performance of work here increase significantly. The metal ladder may also have its own varieties: from cast elements, welded or economy version - a standard collapsible design. By the way, it will also be the fastest installation. Well, it is natural that each metal staircase requires anti-corrosion treatment; 86> On our site you can find contacts of construction companies that offer the service of mounting structures.Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
Concrete . A monolithic concrete street staircase in a private house has a number of advantages - strength, durability, the possibility of combination with decorative elements from any materials. In terms of operational characteristics, this construction simply does not have flaws, but before stopping your choice on such a ladder, you need to take into account its price, weight (an additional foundation is required), manufacturing complexity and time to be spent on installation. According to the last point, this is not only the hardening of concrete, but also the manufacture of formwork. It looks very nice on such a staircase with clinker tiles or marble, but since these materials have never been cheap, beauty will require a rather big financial sacrifice.
Brick . The option is quite rare, but having the right to exist. In contrast to the monolithic concrete staircase, which can be made spiral, the foundation of a brick can only be a march. For the manufacture of the stairs itself, you can use rubble bricks, and finish the already clinker.
For snowy regions, you can use the heated surface of the stairs. In some cases, it will be cheaper and easier to coat with anti-slip coatings.
It may be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the TOP-10 stairs in the modern style.
There are several basic criteria that an external staircase for a house must meet:
Comfortable movement . According to the SNiP, the width of the stairs should be at least 90 cm. Common sense also says this - it will be difficult to go down a narrow passage or climb. The optimal option is considered to be 1–1.5 m wide. There are also certain recommendations for the size of the steps - the height and length should correspond approximately as 18/30 cm. It is calculated that with this ratio, the descent and ascent will be most comfortable. An exception is made for fire escapes - they have a permissible depth of steps 10 cm shorter;
Strength . This parameter, among other things, is affected by the length of the stairs. For marching, for example, the number of spans is not limited to building codes, but the steps on each of them should not be more than 18 pieces.
Stability . In addition to the stairs, if the building was erected recently, then you need to think about the shrinkage of the house. This is especially true of wooden cottages, for which external structures are the last to be made.
Wear resistance . Since the staircase is external, this issue should be given special attention, because you always want repairs to be done as little as possible.
Security . The design of the stairs should take into account who will walk on it - depending on the material, it may be necessary to provide ribbed protrusions or rubber mats from slipping, whether the handrails will not be low (the minimum allowable height is 90 cm). If there are small children who can be left unattended, then between the balusters you should not leave a distance of more than 15 cm, otherwise the child will be able to stick his head there.
Even despite the large number of ready-made solutions, one must take into account that each staircase will be placed at least a little, but “in its own way”, but it means you need to do preliminary calculations.
The approximate algorithm calculations is as follows:
Depending on who will use the stairs, the height of the steps is selected. For example, if there are elderly people in the house, then you can move away from the recommended standard and make the steps lower.
Based on the number of steps, the shape of the stairs or the number of marches is determined.
Depending on the location and functionality of the ladder, its width is selected.
The slope for the team spiral staircase is approximately 45 °, but you still need to calculate the height of the support pole.
If an outdoor staircase to a wooden house is intended, a reserve of “backlash” is immediately put on for shrinkage of wood or its additional processing if necessary (grinding or grinding).
A wooden staircase is not necessarily entirely made of wood.Quite popular options are wooden steps on an iron frame:
It can be interesting! In the article on the following link, read about stairs to give or private house.
If your staircase leads directly from the street to the second floor, then this is convenient (for example, if two families live in a house). However, here has its own tricks :
If the place is a little and the spiral staircase does not deceive (if you use it all the time, it is not always convenient ), then we can consider the so-called turntable with steps in steps (steps make a turn by increasing one side). This design is more difficult to manufacture, but it takes up less space for the march.
If there is a possibility, instead of a continuous vertical ascent, it is better to make an extra march - this will add not only attractiveness, but the stairs outside the house to the second floor will become more secure.
The steps of the ladder and the platform between the marches should be done at a slight (1-2 °) angle . This is necessary for the natural runoff of water.
The width of the upper platform should take into account the width of the doorway, in other words, it is necessary to provide such a width so that it is comfortable to enter and leave the house;
Top materials for wooden stairs - beech, pine, larch or oak, as well as maple. Use of glued board is allowed. If finances allow, it is better to choose the classes "Extra" or "A", they will be stronger and more aesthetic in appearance.
Tile is a relatively convenient material for decoration. But any here will not work - when choosing you need to know a number of nuances :
If after repair even if very strong, wall tile remained, then using it for a staircase is not a good choice - at a minimum, it will slide.
The clinker tile has all the necessary properties. Low hygroscopicity (that is, repels water), resistance to harmful substances (for example, alkalis and salt), a large selection of colors and sizes, good wear resistance allow using it on stairs without any problems. If there are variations, it is better to choose clinker, produced by extrusion, it has grooves on the "wrong" side, and, therefore, it will be better to "clutch" with glue;
Ceramic tile also has all the advantages of the previous version , but when choosing you need to look in the documentation and make sure that the tile is frost-resistant;
When choosing relief tile , think about the practicality of the pattern: of course , it can be beautiful, but any ladder will have to be cleared of debris and snow. Beauty or convenience - the choice is yours.
Rounded edges is not only a beautiful “appearance”, but also just a practical solution - such tiles are less prone to chipping.
The stairs can be equipped with additional elements that will not only bring joy with their appearance, but also benefits. These are:
Heating system . There are plenty of ready-made solutions on the market that allow you to have a comfortable staircase without snow. They are based on the most often "smart" heating cable, which regulates the degree of heating independently, responding to the environment. It is laid on each step, with a loop width of no more than 10 cm. There are no restrictions on the length, for external stairs, choose a cable with a flow rate of 20-40 W / m.
About some nuances of cable selection, the opinion of experts in the video:
The decor is . Traditionally, this includes elements of the railing - balusters. If you are not satisfied with the classic solutions, you can make a design solution of iron or wood to order. In addition, it will look beautiful glass trim (especially durable), inserts of mosaic, metal, and, if the design allows it, then built-in supports (for vases, sculptures and similar decorations).
Paint . Many unusual design decisions beat the "steps", making the picture gathered together only from a certain angle. Or it may be a simple, but unique painting of its kind. Since most of the stairs still require additional processing, you can consider this method of decoration.
This could be interesting! In the article on the following link read about the entrance stairs to the house.
Just like a correct calculation does not guarantee correct performance, and vice versa - lack of experience causes mistakes that can spoil the mood from using the ladder for many years. Therefore, no matter what ladder you choose, but its calculation and manufacturing are best entrusted to professionals.
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