Many believe, with good reason, that a site with difficult terrain has many problems for construction. Of course, to put a house on a perfectly flat surface is possible with much lower costs and restrictions. On the other hand, the uneven area does not put an end to the construction of a residential building. Projects of houses on the slope require more careful development and consideration of several additional parameters. With this approach, it turns out that the building on the slope has obvious advantages, and the shortcomings of a long time to study and easily overcome.
Basic the task of designing on a slope is to correctly use the existing uneven terrain. The first step to creating a project is to study the characteristics of the territory, which is important for assessing the risks of soil movement. Slope can be attributed to one of three types:
Slope as part (edge) of the ravine . Such a lowering of the terrain is formed under the influence of rain and melt water, and often occurs in places composed of loose rocks. In such places, grasses and shrubs grow poorly, there are often scour, scree and landslide processes.
The slope as part of a general lowering of the terrain (for example, towards the river). This is the most sustainable terrain option.
Slope as a result of human economic activity . Perhaps the difficult terrain is the result of the accumulation of a mine dump, the removal of soil and debris. Such "folds of terrain" are unpredictable, as they have variable density.
Practically on each site with difficult terrain, you can build a good and comfortable housing. Moreover, the home will have benefits that are not available on flat land, including the following features:
Architectural diversity . The house on the slope always looks outside the box, and attracts the eyes of others. The slope is an ideal place for expressive buildings with an unusual layout and original landscape solutions. The appearance of the structure will be determined not only by the taste of the owners, but also by the features of the site. For example, the method of access to the house (from the top or from the foot) will affect the location of residential and business premises, the main facade, stairs and terraces.
Sewer savings . There is no need for pumps for pumping wastewater. It is enough to lay the pipes, the rest will be done by the laws of physics - the waste will be removed by gravity.
Savings on drainage for the foundation . Rain and melt water will flow down, and the house will remain dry. Absolutely refuse drainage is not worth it; its design simplifies and thereby reduces the cost.
New opportunities for gardeners- lovers . The slope can be divided into terraces and planted plants, taking into account their light and moisture-loving. Cultures in need of sunlight are planted from above, those that need moisture - below. Plants can be decorated and the house itself, greened flat roof.
Building a house on a slope is always a unique project, there are no ready-made solutions here. Construction companies offer projects for complex areas, but they usually require adaptation to a specific area. Revision of the model or development of the original project will require additional funds. When designing a house on a slope, not only the elevation difference and the characteristics of the soil are taken into account, and the permissible loads on the soil are also determined. The disadvantages of a complex area (easily overcome by modern technologies and materials) include the following features:
The need to strengthen the soil . An important event that helps protect the site from landslides. The soil is strengthened in two ways: install retaining walls in the lower part or perform terracing on the slope (also with installation of retaining walls).
The cost of the zero cycle . The more complex the relief of the site, the more finance is required for digging the pit, organizing retaining walls and drainage. Sometimes a zero cycle is more expensive than all subsequent construction work.
Restrictions on the location of housing . At night, cold air falls down along the slope. A house located on a slope will serve as an obstacle to the movement of air and near it a so-called “cold pocket” (stagnation of cold air) is formed. To avoid the cooling effect, the house is built as high as possible.
The need for thorough waterproofing of the foundation . Since the house is always laid horizontally, part of the foundation will inevitably be buried in the ground. This offers savings in heat consumption, but also requires proper groundwater removal and additional insulation.
Restrictions in operation . The rooms in the house will be illuminated unevenly. Another limitation concerns older family members who find it difficult to move daily from one level to another.
On our site you can find out with the most popular projects of houses from construction companies, presented at the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
Before building a house on a slope, carry out a more thorough study of the area.
Important characteristics that directly affect the choice of a house project are the following features of the slope of the plot:
Slope of the slope . If you walked 100 m along a section and climbed 10 m (height), this means that the slope is 10%. According to the magnitude of the slope, it is customary to divide the plots into flat (from 0 to 3%), as well as with small, medium and steep slopes (respectively, up to 8%, up to 20% and over 20%).
Orientation . When designing a country house pay attention to the location of the slope on the cardinal points. The southern and south-eastern directions are considered favorable for construction in the territory of most of Russia as receiving the optimum amount of sunlight. In areas with hot climates, the northern direction becomes preferable.
Location Selection for home . When choosing a place for future housing, they evaluate not only the panorama of the opening species, but also other, often more important parameters. These include access to the house. Convenient road is important not only during construction (for the operation of equipment and the supply of materials), but also during operation. Often the entrance is the only possible, and this has to be taken into account when designing.
Location of buildings and communications . Due to the elevation difference, additional difficulties may arise with the organization of the water supply system. With the features of the relief will have to be considered when choosing a place for outbuildings, baths, a playground, a well and a septic tank.
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House projects and construction principles are selected on the basis of landscape features; at the same time they are guided by the following principles:
If the slope of construction site does not exceed 3% , then it is considered flat and without standard use standard designs. It is considered expedient to create a small soil filling to expand the terrace and simplify the drainage of water.
Sites with a small slope (up to 7%) also allow the use of standard designs. The only restriction is that the house should be without a basement, and it may also need to add soil.
The slope is 8-20% . In this area, the site is no longer aligned; the best solution would be the construction of the basement (with the removal of part of the soil from the slope). Projects of houses on the slope with a basement need careful waterproofing. Ideally, if the entrance to the lower floor can be arranged. In this case, the basement becomes the ideal place to house the garage. In addition, it is often used for the device pantry, workshop or sauna.
About the house with the ground floor in the following video:
The slope exceeds 20% . For such a building you need an individually designed project that takes into account the specific height difference. The slope turns into several flat terraces (tiers), fortified with retaining walls that take the main load. Reception of terracing stabilizes the soil and considerably facilitates the subsequent zoning of premises. Different purpose rooms are located at different levels and may have their own entrance. The originality of the project is enhanced by the presence of a variety of terraces, verandas and balconies. Increased requirements are imposed on ventilation, waterproofing and thermal insulation of premises.
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The foundation is an invisible part of the structure, the quality of which determines the reliability of the building. The foundation on a slope has its own characteristics: it is more difficult to implement and often has an asymmetrical shape. To select the optimal base, soil analysis is performed and the allowable load on the soil is calculated. There are three types of foundations for houses on difficult terrain:
Horizontal . The standard basis, tape or pile on a design, is suitable for a site with uniform soil. High costs will require the organization of the construction site and the entrance to it. You will need to call the special equipment, which will remove excess soil and align the required area.
Step . A variety of strip foundations, in which the thickness of the concrete substrate will vary due to the slope of the surface. This base looks like a normal horizontal foundation, but at the bottom of the layer of concrete will be maximum, and on top - the minimum. Dredging in the organization of the stepped foundation is not made.
About the modern Norwegian project on a slope in the following video:
On screw piles . Such a foundation is applicable on a soil of different composition; It is suitable for light one-story buildings, made, for example, by frame technology. Piles go deep into the ground while it is being compacted. The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of organizing the basement.
A house on a slope with a basement floor and a terrace is a popular housing arrangement option. The foundation and the terraces serve as a fundamental part of the building, they distribute the pressure on the ground and prevent the displacement of the ground. To protect them from the negative impact of natural forces, they carry out additional measures to make the slope strong and safe. Such works include:
Organization of the drainage system . Effective discharge of rain and melt water has a very positive effect on the state of the walls and foundation. To keep the water flowing in an orderly manner, along the terraced retaining walls lay canvases and cover them with rubble.
Compaction of the soil . It is recommended to build a concrete pavement around the building and additionally replace part of the soil with sand. In other areas, you can use geotextiles and reinforced gratings.
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Projects developed with due account for a (sometimes significant) height difference always look unbanal. Such buildings can be divided into two types:
Houses of stepped storey . The design can be cascade-sectional when the elements of the building are shifted relative to each other vertically. For steep slopes suitable terraced construction, when the roof of one building serves as a terrace for another. In both cases, the structure resembles steps.
Houses of variable number of floors . Here, the roofs of all components of the building are on the same level, and the number of floors of each part may be different (depending on the topography). Such housing is allowed to build on any slopes.
When designing a house on a slope, methods are used that increase reliability and living comfort:
In multi-storey buildings located on several levels, there are separate entrances on each tier , which is very practical and convenient (especially for guests).
Flat exploited roof . Ideal, especially if the plot is small in size. Tiered houses with a flat roof - a godsend for organizing recreation areas: all kinds of patios, gazebos, terraces with barbecue and children's playgrounds.
Roof Garden . Modern technologies (the use of membrane materials) allow even the roof to be greened, creating an eco-friendly and demanded rest corner. Greening the roof should be incorporated in the project, since only specialists can correctly distribute the load (a place for trees, for example, is chosen over the bearing walls).
Elements of the facade . The project in any style will benefit from the use of panoramic windows. Modern large windows have improved thermal insulation qualities and are suitable for use in regions with long and frosty winters.
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The cost of building a house on a slope is directly related to the terrain features and soil properties, so preliminary geological research is an important step in the construction of housing. Field work will provide an opportunity to analyze the source data and determine the optimal parameters of construction. The use of geological exploration helps to reduce the total cost of construction (including the zero cycle) by 10-15%.
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