What does the imagination paint when we hear about a hand-made log house? A fabulous terem comes to memory, where a maiden is sitting, sad, or sturdy merchant mansions with a carved porch, or a strong Siberian log house, covered with sparkling snow. Modern hand-made country houses, although they are listed as direct descendants of these buildings, have acquired a new quality, have become technological and much more comfortable.
In a country where a forest is a significant renewable resource, wood as a building material will not soon lose its relevance. Among the various wooden technologies, hand-cutting makes it possible to show the expressiveness of the material most fully, and every house of hand-cutting (even with the simplest layout) looks like a unique creation. The use of hand-cut logs has turned from harsh necessity into a sign of desire for a free country life.
The experience of wooden house building has been accumulated and improved over thousands of years, carefully passed down from generation in a generation and reached our days, without losing relevance. Therefore, probably, the wooden house is felt by a lively tradition and has magical appeal. Among all the technologies of wooden house-building, houses from hand-made logs are notable for their special reliability and durability. Such superiority is ensured by a set of rules for the selection of wood, processing methods and methods for the construction of housing.
Logging for shelter housing has its own specifics; choosing the material, they are guided by the following rules:
Forest selection . Coniferous logs (logs with a diameter of 180 mm) of pine and spruce, more rarely larch and cedar, are mainly used. Coniferous wood is valued for its density and tarry, and the trees that grew in the lowlands or near the swamp are less quoted, since the danger of being affected by a putrefactive fungus is higher.
Selection of the place of harvesting . The growing area affects the quality of the material. The most dense and homogeneous forest structure is northern wood. It was not without reason that wooden architecture flourished in the Arkhangelsk and Vologda regions, where, thanks to the cold summer and long winter, especially valuable wood is harvested (dense, thanks to the small intervals between the annual rings).
Timing of the workpiece . Preferred wood winter harvesting - at this time, the movement of juices in the trunk stops, and the amount of water decreases. Such material is easier to process, it is less prone to damage and cracking.
Material use . The best wood in terms of price / quality ratio is pine. The structure of spruce logs is softer and the resin in them is smaller, therefore, their service life is also less. Because of these features, spruce prefer to use for interior decoration. Larch wood is harder and heavier than pine: it is not afraid of moisture, but its shrinkage takes more time. It is beneficial to use in the decoration, for the manufacture of beams and rafters, ideally - to cover the floor. Cedar, like larch, is a dense, moisture-resistant material. Essential oils of cedar wood have a depressing effect on microorganisms and mold and beneficially on human health. Cedar logging is limited, so prices are increasing year by year.
Choice material . The preferred (as well as the rarest and most expensive) is dead wood, naturally shrunken at the root and the trees remaining (sometimes hundreds of years) to stand. Log houses (kelo houses) are rare, piece projects and are more expensive than buildings made of cedar or larch. Much of the budget is spent on the search and delivery of logs, although, for example, some Finnish companies specialize in the construction of hand-cut houses from dead wood.
How warm a chopped house will be depends largely on the diameter of the log. It is selected according to several criteria:
Accessibility . The most affordable price category is logs with a diameter of 15-24 cm. The stability of demand for them does not decrease due to the need for insulation (according to SNiP 31-02-2001, houses made of such material do not meet heat saving standards and need additional thermal insulation).
Kudos . The project of a country house of logs with a diameter of 24-40 cm does not need warming, but a more solid foundation, which will entail an increase in costs. A log with a diameter of 40-60 cm is expensive, and is used for the cutting of premium housing.
Expert assessment . To build a reliable and comfortable all-season house, a log diameter of 34-30 cm is recommended. Such housing is ideal for the climate of the central and northern regions of the European part of Russia.
The construction of wooden houses of manual cutting is carried out with features, the main of which is the refusal (for the most part) of industrial processing in favor of manual labor. Such an erection process has its advantages; it is usually divided into several stages:
At the preparatory stage, the logs are sorted by quality and diameter, then sanded and staggered. At the same time, no more than 1 cm is removed in order to preserve the sapwood as much as possible (the upper protective layer, which is 3 cm near pine). Pin can be performed with a hand tool, which is preferable, or an electric plane; the choice depends on the qualifications of the master. A longitudinal groove is made, the ends of the logs are treated with an antiseptic.
Prepared logs have a humidity of 80-90%. Such material is easier to process, it is less deformed when shrinking. In the process of shrinkage at home, the longitudinal size of the logs is reduced by 0.1%, transverse - by 3-6%.
A classic tool for the construction of chopped houses is an ax, which turns the construction into a difficult and time-consuming task, but contributing to the preservation of wood. Work with an ax does not shag material like a saw and therefore retains moisture resistance. Thanks to the "clumsy" work, the log house does not need an exterior finish, but only a protective impregnation that preserves the wood.
Prepared logs are determined by the place and row in the future log house, marking is applied to them. At assembly of a felling wooden pins are used. Experienced cutters do not use metal nails for two reasons:
Condensate formed on nails will inevitably start the process of corrosion and then rotting of the log.
During shrinkage logs rigidly fastened with nails will not be able to occupy the desired position and gaps will appear between the rims.
On our site you can familiarize yourself with the most popular designs of houses made from hand-made logs logging from construction companies represented at the exhibition "Low-Rise Country".
You can chop a house in different ways; The most important place, the basis of the design are the corner cut (the intersection of logs). Mechanization of work is impossible, since the blanks are individual in profile and structure. In practice, three types of log connections are common (each of which, in turn, has different design options):
Chop with stock (with release, flush, coolant, in the bowl) . It is considered the oldest and least time consuming method, when in one of the logs (upper or lower) a cavity (bowl) is cut down, where the second log is placed. The lack of design - in the bowl gets atmospheric moisture, which is impregnated insulation; over time, signs of rot may appear. On each log, up to 0.5 m 2 wood is lost due to residues (cutting of bowls).
Cutting without an oversight (into the paw, into a clean angle) . At the intersection of the logs, a lock connection is cut down, economical due to the lack of releases. The method is particularly suitable for hexagonal or octagonal structures; its peculiarity is that the external corner needs to be sewn with a board or clapboard.
Norwegian cutting . It is used in the construction of buildings from the carpeting (log, hewn from two external sides). With perfect execution, the walls are smooth and tight (caulking is not required).
Canadian cutting (trapezoid bowl) . It is considered a symbiosis of the Russian and Norwegian versions. More time-consuming felling with a non-standard form of the lock and technological nuances (oblique curtains). Such a lock during shrinkage is wedged, and the cracks do not appear, leaving the structure sealed.
Features of the construction of a handheld house:
The size of the foundation . If a log house is built from a six-meter log, the foundation is poured in size, 6x6 m. If cutting is used in the construction of a bowl (with cuts of 40 cm), then the result is that the foundation is 40 cm more on each side. Chopped log houses do not need a strong foundation. A shallow-tape or bored pile foundation is usually constructed.
On our website you can find the contacts of construction companies that offer the service of building houses from a log house. Directly to communicate with representatives, you can visit the exhibition of houses "Low-rise Country".
About the 19th century Russian cottage in the following video:
First crown (row of logs) . For the lower row it is preferable to use a larch, resistant to rotting.
External cracks . Their appearance is inevitable, but if the house is defended and dries out naturally, fewer cracks will appear than during the heating of the house. Cracks do not affect the strength of the structure.
Trimming angles . It is carried out after laying the crowns; the protruding ends of the logs are aligned (cut by a chainsaw) under one line. Sometimes (if provided by the project) the ends are decorated with decorative carvings.
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Country houses made of large-diameter logs are attracting more and more attention; in Germany, the number of such buildings has doubled over the past decade, and interest continues to grow. The reason for the increasing popularity is the number of advantages of chopped houses:
Saving at construction . Wooden houses do not need finishing and expensive deep foundation, like stone; there are also no "wet" processes that hinder the work. Log shipping will also be cheaper than brick shipping. In general, turnkey houses are cheaper than similar brick or concrete projects.
Economy of living space . Wooden walls are thinner than stone, because of which the gain reaches 8-10%.
Durability . Today we know a lot of chopped buildings that have exceeded the centenary anniversary. Modern methods of wood processing can extend even this impressive service life.
Frost resistance . A correctly designed and constructed blockhouse is able to withstand an unlimited number of freeze-thaw cycles (unlike brick or cellular concrete).
Energy Efficiency . Wood has an excellent ability to keep warm. Heat-insulating characteristics are especially well shown when using logs of big diameter.
Microclimate Adjustment . The natural ability of wood is the ability to absorb excess moisture from the air and release it if the air in the rooms is too dry. Air filtration through wooden walls reaches 30% of the room volume per day. Such an automatic adjustment of humidity favorably affects the well-being of people. Substances secreted by coniferous wood can have a calming effect and relieve fatigue.
Environmental friendliness . Wood is a renewable, non-polluting building material. The environmental impact of the construction of such a house is minimal; waste (chips and chips) are finding new uses.
What does a construction from Karelian forest look like in the following video:
Aesthetic . Wooden walls are decorative in themselves and do not need finishing. The outer skin slows down the air circulation and may cause structural damage.
The disadvantages of a wooden frame include:
Continuous shrinkage . Logs are used for logs of natural moisture, which involves a long drying process and the use of structural tweaks to mitigate its effects (screw compensators and technological gaps). Housewarming will have to be postponed for 1.5-2 years.
Flammability . The unpleasant property of all wooden structures, which can be reduced by impregnating the wood with a fire retardant. The composition will help to somewhat delay the spread of the flame, which will increase the time to save people.
Biohazard . Dampness is very popular with mold fungi, microorganisms and insects, whose main diet is wood. Of course, the walls of coniferous logs - not the most edible option, but it is better to insure, having processed the material at the construction stage with an antiseptic and covered them with varnish.
Heat loss . Some methods of manual cutting (and inexperienced cutters) do not provide a tight fit of logs, so the corners can be blown and wet. Caulking of seams is a troublesome process, expensive and not always completely solving the problem.
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Paradox: in a country with centuries-old traditions of wooden architecture, most people belong to log houses with skepticism. There is a simple explanation for this - too often dilettantes with a weak understanding of the intricacies of ancient art are engaged in the construction of such houses. Such "masters" leave behind the buildings with sloping walls, cracked crowns and causing bustle, clogged with tow gaps.
About the house of the dry polar pine in the following video:
The houses from the large log house, in which shrinkage deformation is most pronounced, are particularly affected . If builders reacted to shrinking lightly, defects will inevitably appear, and most of them will be irreparable. In such a house one can hardly attain peace of mind. Unscrupulous brigades have a common, recognizable style of work:
the lowest grade forest is purchased, often from middlemen. Logs of different breeds with doubtful quality fall into the set, but they are cheap.
Work begins after the prepayment , but the deadlines are constantly disrupted, and always for a good reason.
The work is being carried out by a team of carpenters, apparently almost who had no experience in hand-cutting .
Lack of professional skills can be seen with the naked eye even by a non-professional: due to poor fit of the logs between the rims, decent slots remain, and the ceiling hemming and flooring is carried out immediately after installing the log house .
Failure to comply with technology results in the construction of a house with numerous defects; the building turns out to be cold, and the even surface of the walls begins to deform.
Cheap offer . If it is so profitable that all other options before it fade away, do not let yourself be blinded. Most likely, the team plans to perform work using a wheelhouse with a triangular groove. It is performed easily and quickly (by a chainsaw), it is not noticeable when assembled, but it is a gross violation of the technology, since it cannot be completely filled with insulation. The remaining open areas of wood are moistened, lose their strength and become friable. The top of the triangular groove is the point of stress; over time, under the pressure of the overlying logs, a crack may go along the triangle, which will not benefit the thermal efficiency of the structure.
All these disappointments can be avoided by ordering a log house from a construction company that values its reputation and has a long work experience. Such an organization also has its own style:
Used high quality wood , the variety is agreed with the customer. Many companies rent forest plots, which makes it possible to control the quality of wood and have a strategic supply of raw materials.
Many companies start construction without prepayment , after the conclusion of the contract. Payment is carried out in stages, only for the work done.
Work is being done professional carpenters , owning a variety of techniques for cutting performance. Such work is more expensive, but it excludes the appearance of flaws that are common in less experienced craftsmen.
The process takes place in front of the customer , who can observe the cutting technique and also make allowable adjustments to the construction.
The building is built strictly according to the schedule and as soon as possible, the housing is durable and warm.
Some companies, apart from the classic log house, chopped at the construction site, offer the log house from the house set . This option is beneficial if the construction takes place in a remote, inaccessible place; Its advantages are the possibility:
To reduce the time of construction by 40-50%.
Get rid of annoying construction noise .
Do not spend funds for cleaning the area from sawdust, scrap and other debris.
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Construction companies offer both finished log houses and the possibility of individual design. In addition, there is a convenient opportunity to order a bath, gazebo or guest house in the same architectural style.
Popular styles of modern country houses hand-made are:
Russian style . It is divided into several directions.The house can take the form of a noble or merchant estate, or a traditional village house with carvings and shutters.
Scandinavian style . There are several areas: Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian houses; functionality and external simplicity is characteristic of all.
Country . The building is often supplied with a spacious terrace, with partial stone trimming allowed in the design.
Fixed prices for 1 m2 of manual felling housing are not easy to name, the factors affecting the final cost are too different. In addition to the standard parameters that determine the price of the building (size, number of corners, type of cutting), there are:
Type of wood and size of the log . It is important to find a reasonable proportion between the thickness (and price) of the log and the standards for thermal insulation, fixed in the SNiP. Large diameter will cost a large amount, but on the skin can not remember.
The cutting site is . The ideal (and like everything perfect, practically non-existent) option is the cutting of wood in the construction area. First, there will be no defects on logs that appear during transportation and unloading. Secondly, money is saved on delivery (which sometimes reaches a decent size).
Work of masters . The main feature of the house manual cutting, guaranteeing the reliability of the design, is a method of connecting logs. Truly high-quality processing of logs and their connection is carried out manually using a variety of carpentry tools. If, moreover, the project assumes decorative elements (on corner joints, terraces, gables and roof ramps), then saving at the level of craftsmanship looks unwise.
The following prices for manual house chopping are averaged:
Log cabin from the northern forest (pine or spruce up to 40 cm in diameter): from 15-16 thousand rubles. / m 2 .
Log cabin of cedar or larch (diameter up to 60 cm): from 23-25 thousand rubles. / m 2 .
Average prices for the construction of a turnkey log house (in the Moscow region) are distributed in the range:
Houses with an area up to 100 m 2 : 1.45-1.9 million rubles.
An area of from 100 to 200 m 2 : 2.1-2.8 million rubles.
From 200 to 300 m 2 : 2.95-3.6 million rubles.
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