After reading the article, everyone will be able to understand how widely stones are used in landscape design today, what types of stones exist, how they can fit into different stylistic concepts. Photos and videos of finished works will clearly demonstrate the diversity of the described decor elements.
If there is a desire to make landscape design from stones, no need to strive to collect in the same area as many different types of rocks as possible. Such an error leads to a loss of the effect of naturalness. Experts recommend to opt for two, three varieties and already with the help of them to assemble the relief of the project.
In order to make the choice of material easier, you need to familiarize yourself with the entire existing range and study the characteristics of each type. For example, depending on the origin, there are stones:
Volcanic rock (granite, basalt, diorite, perit, diabase). Such boulders have a solid foundation, each block has a very large weight, it will stand on the site of the century and nothing will happen to it. Volcanic stones look very decorative, they are presented in a wide color palette, their technical characteristics are perfect for performing any kinds of landscape works. Look very effectively and in its original form, and after grinding. The downside is the high price.
Sedimentary rocks (sandstone, shell rock, tuff, dolomite). Such stones lie in the thickness of the earth by layers, they have a layered porous structure, therefore they do not tolerate a direct mechanical impact (blows with a blunt object) and can not boast of high wear resistance. Often this material is used to finish the facades of houses, grand staircases, create floors on open verandas, and decorative borders. Almost all the stones of such rocks have soft natural shades of nature and a unique pattern. Lumps are easy to process, it is easier to make tiles from them. At the same time the price of the finished product is quite affordable.
Metamorphic rock (schungite, marble, slate, gneiss). Such stones also have a sedimentary nature of origin, but compared to the previous type, it can boast higher strength. Therefore, they can be applied, like stones of volcanic nature, in any kinds of work.
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There is a systematization of stones according to their size. Depending on this indicator, there is an assortment:
lumps are huge overall elements with an untreated surface, very textured and bulky;
boulders - the stones are smaller, differ from the first ones by more rounded shapes, a smooth surface, in the creation of which the wind and water took part;
cobblestones - small elements with a streamlined shape;
pebbles - round stones of different shapes and colors and sizes;
crushed stone - wastes obtained from the extraction and processing of hard stones.
stone screening and sand.
Similar materials are most actively used today in landscape design.
Almost all of the listed types of stones are actively used to create support walls, decorative partitions and fences. Such objects always look spectacular and thoroughly. Especially often used is the method of creating support posts for open summer terraces.
Another area of application is facing the plinths of residential houses, garages and household extensions. It is best created using granite, solid sandstone or basalt. If it is possible to make paths in the garden with the help of an identical material, you will get a beautiful ensemble that can be easily taken as the basis for landscape design.
Rockeries and alpine slides are created with the help of any kinds of the listed stones of large and small sizes. It is important to be able to combine stones and plants. For example, on acidic soils, limestones perfectly coexist with certain types of mountain plants. Planting heathers, hydrangeas and azaleas next to them is undesirable.
Paths and open terraces must be made of stone, which does not pass moisture, which can withstand high mechanical loads and demonstrate high wear resistance. Basalt, syenite, serpentinite has such characteristics.Similar elements made of labradorite look very nice.
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Entrance stairs and porch should be durable, stable and non-slip. The banks of reservoirs need to spread boulders or large pebbles. Pebbles and rubble are best for creating dry streams.
Natural stone does not lose its attractiveness for decades; on the contrary, over time, under the influence of wind and rain, it is polished and becomes even more expressive. Perhaps that is why he is very popular in different national cultures. Designers using this material create a surprisingly warm atmosphere. Various decorative elements help to dilute the formality of the garden and structure it. Individual thematic figures fit perfectly into different stylistic concepts. And all because they illustrate well the basic principles of aesthetics and enliven other landscape compositions.
The domination of boulders, boulders and pebbles manifests itself in the best way possible. Such materials are distributed randomly across the site. In this way, it is possible to form a feeling of natural naturalness and ease.
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Paths, steps, retaining walls, bridges and rocky plumb lines are created from stone tiles in a Scandinavian garden. Here it is customary to make outdoor areas for rest and to put a fireplace or thicket for a fireplace out of large stone fragments. Stones are also actively used to create grottoes. They act as farm buildings. If you plant a ground-covering plant around such an object, you will be able to make a mysterious corner that will look elegant and expensive, while its operation will pursue a purely practical goal.
Original Scandinavian landscape design made of stones and cobbles is usually closely associated with the outside world. Therefore, when it is implemented, usually miniature figures of trolls or gnomes, Vikings, and any other mythical characters usually appear next to objects made of stone. Conifers are often planted. All this always looks very impressive.
This combination helps create extraordinary, memorable gardens . The concept described is good for hilly areas, it is ideal for lovers of seaside resorts. The recognition of the concept contributes to the combination of a large number of stones and the murmur of water.
What can be the basis of a Mediterranean garden? An open terrace or a retaining wall made of stone that has the color of wet clay (it can be pink marble or sandstone, sea pebbles of brown or red color). With the help of such material, picturesque ruins are created, fountains and facades of residential buildings are finished. Lawns, bas-reliefs, murals, and stone figures should appear in the company with them in the garden. Nearby you need to build a swimming pool, break tracks or platforms with the help of solid slabs or their fragments. The main task is to create an internal indoor courtyard in which you can stay with guests, sit, admire the beauty of nature and, if you wish, somehow interact with it.
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This concept is ideal for those who love thoughtful contemplation and are looking for peace in nature. The inhabitants of the country of the Rising Sun treat the stones not as a building material. For them, they are deities with whom you can talk and share your anxieties. Therefore, these elements in the garden are not only decorative load. They are the center symbols, the admiration of which should force them to include their imagination and learn something new for themselves.
That is why in the Japanese garden the location of the stones sets the storyline. The gardener does not just arrange them in a chaotic manner, he writes a story that should seem interesting to everyone. For example, a small composition of stones in the garden in the wake of a dry stream personifies the islands. And large boulders, overgrown with moss, should cause an association with the Japanese hills.
When creating your story, it is important to try to avoid strict symmetry, it is not in nature.Need to act as an artist works, creating a picture on canvas with paints. Instead, the Japanese gardener uses paints of plants and stones. The alignment of the latter is subject to strict laws.
The stones should stand where they can comfortably be admired, without any interference. The ideal is the observation point located on the north side. Even if the sun is at its peak, it will not dazzle and interfere with viewing existing compositions.
Only the stones in the garden should not dominate - the Japanese-style design presupposes a balance between free and filled areas. It is impossible to place stones of the same size parallel to each other on the same site. The main principle is complete asymmetry. The Japanese themselves in the design of stone gardens use a geometric network of lines, they arrange the largest stones at their intersections, and only then deliver smaller stones, forming the desired composition. The remaining space is filled with pebbles or rubble, lines are drawn with a rake on the surface of the new field. They symbolize rippling water.
This video shows how stones are used to create a Japanese garden:
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A garden decorated in this style should resemble a mountainous landscape. To do this, if the natural terrain has large elevation differences, it is easy. But also on a flat surface, it is possible to create something similar by laying out an alpine slide from a stone. It should be clearly visible from the windows, next to it should not be trees and shrubs, all that could hide it from view.
To create it, you can use stones of different rocks, the main thing is to use for this purpose both blocks and boulders, round and flat stones. The center of the composition is the easiest to form around the largest stone. It is necessary to attach a large and flat one to it, and only after that round stones and smaller stones of irregular shape are laid. At the foot - the smallest elements.
All the voids are then filled with fine rubble or fertile soil into which you can plant plants (juniper, primroses, Alpine Carnation).
Instead of an alpine slide, a flowerbed made of stone, streams and waterfalls, retaining walls, podiums, winding paths, gravel slides, and bridges may appear in the garden described.
The video shows ideas for building alpine slides using different stones and plants:
This concept is best suitable for those who own forest areas. Cutting it down and creating something completely man-made is a laborious and very expensive business. It is much easier to solve the problem of decorating, beating the existing naturalness and making nature itself the main object of decor. To do this, you need to work quite a bit and create a place to rest in different parts of the garden.
These could be open areas decorated with stone bowls with flowers, or narrow winding paths strewn gravel leading to a mysterious grotto, made of large stones, multi-level flowerpots for green vines. In the depth of such a garden, giant rocks can appear, large stones in landscape design help to form verticals around which you can create seating for gatherings around a large campfire site. In the concept described, there is no deterrent; therefore, you can create anything you want with the help of boulders and cobblestones.
The video shows the ideas of using natural stone in the landscape design of a country site:
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With a strong desire, natural stone can be used to create a garden of any stylistic concept. He is a grateful material, with the help of it today various projects are being implemented. Practice shows that these elements have not yet uncovered potential, so designers working in different countries of the world continue to comprehend its secrets, discover its secrets and offer new, experimental areas of application.